|摘要: ||冷戰後，全球地緣政治發生了兩個重要變化，一是印度洋成為世界海權的「心臟」，二是中國和印度崛起為歐亞大陸上新的地緣權勢中心。由此，美、中、印三國的安全戰略都聚焦印度洋，在地緣政治視角下，圍繞印度洋海權之爭，三國在印度洋極力締造均勢，並為自己謀求最大的戰略利益。 |
After cold war, global geopolitics has had two radical changes. First is the Indian Ocean becomes the heart of the world sea power; Second is China and India rise as a new power center of geopolitics in Eurasia. Thus, the security strategy of the America, China and India has focused on the Indian Ocean. From the viewpoint of geopolitics, surrounded by the competition of the sea power in the Indian Ocean, the three nations create a power balance vigorously and seek the best strategic benefit for itself.
In recent years, the America has suddenly realized that India which has been ignored all the time turns out to be the cornerstone of the South Asia’s stability. It is not only the biggest commonwealth of the world, but also the key position among Middle East, Central Asia and South Asia. It can stand firm this strategic tectonic plate for the democratic world, and also detain the Islam basic religious doctrine and the terrorism. Especially when China rises the situation to be dense, India is the most appropriate strategy partner to the America, for its use to contend with China and lack with real power and ambition to look down upon the America. Therefore, the America has determined to form an alliance with India, which will make the political relations of South Asia more complicated in the future decades.
For the long-term strategic purpose, China can only face directly the India Ocean and breakthrough Malacca to assure economic development and energy transportation security. The main strategy of China in 21st century must rely on mainland and face the ocean. One is the Pacific Ocean, and the other is the Indian Ocean. However, for those bystanders who put their hands around the Asian subcontinent, it would unavoidably cause India in a state of nerves. China is changing the South Asia strategy, which used to favor Pakistan all the way, and turns into take a balanced diplomacy which puts equal emphasis on India.
The defense principles of the America and Japan hold the same view with India’s strategy of the Indian Ocean in threatening China’s economic development. Objectively, it has become a power to influence China’s foreign economic lifeline and restrict China’s economic development in ocean. Regardless of the subjective desire or the objective reality, the development and interaction of the strategic factors in the Indian Ocean is a noticeable factor to China’s future security and stability.
Key word：the Indian Ocean，Geopolitics, Energy, Security, Malacca