一般對所謂「天人關係」並沒有清楚的界定，並且都將儒家的天人關係誤分為「天人合一」和「天人相分」兩類。本文強調(1)天人關係基本上應指「存在關係」。(2)儒家的天人關係論基本上都是「天人合一」的型態，其中又分「天、人(專就道、理、心而言)同一的合一」和「天、人(整體而言)合中有分的合一」兩類。(3)一般都認為荀子主張「天人相分」，其實荀子思想中也有「天人之合」的一面；一般都只注意到董仲舒思想中天人相合的一面，其實他也有「天人之分」的觀點；因此兩人的天人關係論就都同樣是「天人合中有分」一類。筆者相信，本文這樣的分判和詮釋，比较符合一般所謂「中國哲學以天人合一爲主調」的觀點，也才真正呈現了荀子、董仲舒天人關係論的原貌。 The relationship between Heaven and man is basically an existential relationship. Many scholars conclude that Xunzi advocated the distinction between Heaven and man. In fact, there are still some thoughts about the unity of man with Heaven in Xunzi's philosophy. Many scholars also conclude that Dong Zhongshu advocated the unity of man with Heaven. In fact, there are still some thoughts about the distinction between Heaven and man. So, according to Xunzi and Dong Zhongshu's philosophy, we must say that there are both concepts about unity and about distinction between Heaven and man. I believe that this conclusion would have more correspondence with general feeling of many scholars about the characteristic of Chinese culture.