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    Title: 能源安全、GATT/WTO與區域/自由貿易協定
    Other Titles: Energy Security, GATT/WTO and Regional/Free Trade Agreements
    Authors: 施文真
    Shih, Wen-Chen
    Date: 2007-10
    Issue Date: 2010-10-06 11:16:44 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 能源係一國經濟發展之動力,如何確保穩定的能源供給為各國能源政策之首要。考量到全球多數的國家均必須依靠進口之能源,能源之貿易行為——特別是主要能源生產國之出口政策——於各國考量能源安全與能源供給的相關政策時,應扮演相當重要的角色。世界貿易組織(WTO)下的不歧視原則、數量限制禁止等原則,是否有助於依賴進口能源的WTO會員,如我國以及大多數之WTO會員,達成穩定能源供給以及能源安全的政策目標?於數個能源主要生產與出口國進行加入WTO之入會談判的同時,許多國家開始協商並締結具有強烈能源連結之區域協議,包括「北美自由貿易協定」(NAFTA)以及歐洲地區的「能源憲章條約」(ECT),此是否代表GATT/WTO下所建構出的多邊貿易自由化機制,於能源貿易以及能源安全之相關議題上,將逐漸為區域性或自由貿易協定所取代?本文將針對能源安全之定義、能源貿易之各類意涵以及其於GATT/WTO下之相關法律規定進行分析,並選擇GATT/WTO之出口管制——包括出口關稅、出口數量限制、以及出口管制措施的例外規定——作為能源供給安全之主要規範並進行深入討論,以瞭解GATT/WTO之出口管制規定是否足以確保其會員之能源安全;本文接著將以NAFTA下之能源專章以及ECT兩個具有強烈能源連結之區域性或自由貿易協定,就其出口管制與過境相關規範進行說明。研究結果發現,此兩區域性協定,各自於出口管制以及過境運輸上訂有比GATT/WTO更為周延的規定。但,考慮到並非所有能源進口國均有實力透過區域性協定的簽署以確保能源供給的穩定,以及GATT/WTO下之貿易自由化宗旨於能源貿易與能源安全中亦為關鍵的要素,雖然於現階段的GATT/WTO多邊貿易規範無法完全協助其會員達成能源安全的目標,但該些多邊貿易規範還是於能協助其會員達成能源安全的目標,但該些多邊貿易規範還是於能源貿易中扮演重要的角色,無法為區域性或自由貿易協定所取代。
    How to ensure a steady supply of energy remains a priority for every nation’s energy policy-making. Considering the fact that most countries import sources of energy, trade in energy—in particular the export policies of major energy sources exporting countries—play a crucial role in energy security planning. Can the legal principles of nondiscriminatory and prohibition on quantitative restrictions under the World Trade Organisation (WTO) assist WTO Members to achieve the policy objective of energy security? Meanwhile, some WTO Members have negotiated regional agreements with very strong energy connection, such as NAFAT and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT). Does this imply that the role of the WTO will be increasingly diminished and replaced by regional agreements in the context of energy security?\r
    A definition of energy security, along with different dimensions of energy trade and how GATT/WTO rules are relevant to these dimensions will be analysed first. After identifying export control provisions as the most relevant regulations with respect to energy security, this article proceeds to conduct a detail examination on export duties, export prohibition or restrictions, and exceptions to export control under the GATT/WTO. Two regional agreements, NAFTA and ECT, and their export control regulations will then be analysed and comparison will be made between these regulations and those under the GATT/WTO. The article finds that export controls under these regional agreements are more attuned to cater the energy security need of countries relying on energy import.\r
    However, considering the fact that not every WTO Member has the power to negotiate such an agreement with its major energy exporting partner, and that the objective of trade liberalisation embodied under the WTO also plays a crucial role to energy trade and energy security, this article concludes that GATT/WTO will not, and cannot be substituted by regional agreement in the context of energy security.
    Relation: 政大法學評論,99,241-319
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 期刊論文

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