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    Title: 後冷戰時期德國中東外交政策之研究
    A study of Germany's middle east policy in the post cold-war era
    Authors: 朱子亮
    Contributors: 李登科
    朱子亮
    Keywords: 德國
    歐盟
    中東地區
    外交政策
    中東政策
    雙邊關係
    Germany
    European Union
    Middle East
    Foreign Policy
    Middle East Policy
    Bilateral Relations
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-12-08 11:02:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二次大戰以前之早期歷史階段,中東地區一直是德國對外政策中之次要項目。而冷戰時期之雙邊關係發展,也多傾向於反映西德與該地區實際往來相對有限之情況,而非突顯類似雙邊在地理位置上之鄰近性、以及雙邊經貿關係發展潛力等有利因素;而就該時期阿拉伯國家對西德之態度立場而言,主要特徵在於前者對後者明顯支持以色列之立場感到失望及不滿。70年代以後,西德政府開始嘗試與以色列和阿拉伯國家建立一個「基於平等對待立場」(Politik der Ausgewogenheit)之往來關係原則,然而由於相關策略仍未能擺脫受到冷戰期間之美蘇對立背景環境、中東地區之以阿衝突問題以及二戰時期納粹德國曾經迫害猶太族群之歷史記憶等因素之影響,故至東西德統一以前,西德對中東地區國家一直未能形成具體可見之外交政策。
    90年代之後,國際局勢歷經重大變遷,包括冷戰結束、東西德統一,歐盟內部統合趨勢、以及以色列和巴勒斯坦和平進程之展開等,不但影響了德國對中東地區政策,為上述政策之形成帶來新的動力與契機,同時也致使德國在該地區逐漸扮演更有力、可見度較過去顯著之角色。上述變遷之外,致使後冷戰時期德國在中東議題上之參與程度、以及德國支持歐盟在中東地區扮演積極角色之程度有顯著增加之其他主要因素,尚包括德國在中東地區之實際利益有所提升、德國與歐盟和美國之間的合作關係、以及德國與以色列之特殊關係等因素。統一後之德國,其內部已經逐漸擺脫了畏懼談論有關在中東地區利益以及以阿(以巴)衝突問題之情況,而其在中東地區確實存在某些實際利益,也是不容置疑的:經濟上,該地區提供能源及市場方面之需求;安全保障上,同樣地,可以歸結為德國在中東地區之主要安全利益,在於防止中東地區之衝突和不穩定局勢,包括恐怖主義、武器擴散以及難民遷徙等安全問題蔓延至歐洲地區;而就政治方面,德國於該地區之主要利益,在於以阿衝突問題之和平解決,而相關目標之達成,將能顯著地化解德國在拓展與該地區阿拉伯國家關係上之障礙及困境。
    本篇論文探討並歸結出了塑造當今德國對中東地區政策的五個主要面向:(一)能源、經濟以及安全利益;(二)德國在以阿(以巴)衝突問題上之特殊處境與國內考量;(三)支持歐盟內部成員國在中東議題方面彼此進行協調整合之優先性;(四)強調在中東議題上進行國際多邊合作(特別是需要美國方面之參與和支持)之必要性;(五)德國對以色列之歷史責任及雙邊特殊關係。
    筆者認為,未來,作為後冷戰時期德國外交政策的一項主要趨勢,德國對中東地區事務之參與情形將更為積極,同時也具備足夠潛力來扮演此一角色,並更願意透過具體實際之措施或行動來展現之,對於該地區局勢未來之變化將具有正面且深刻之影響,故未來其中東政策及在該地區角色之發展不容忽視,有必要予以密切關注。
    Before World War II, the Middle East region was not a high priority for the Governments of Germany. For West Germany, development of relations with the Arabic states during the Cold-War period is prone to reflect far more, the relatively limited scope of bilateral engagement, than the geographical proximity or the trading potential between the Arab world and West Germany. On the other hand, the typical perception towards West Germany that existed among the Arabic countries during the Cold-War period, is broadly characterized by the disappointment with West Germany’s pro-Israeli stance.
    From the 1970s onwards, Governments of West Germany had tried to build up a “principle of even-handedness”(Politik der Ausgewogenheit)in its foreign policy towards Israel, and the Arabic countries, but which still could not ignore the impact of the Cold War, Arab-Israeli conflicts, as well as the legacy of the Nazi past. Thus, a definite and visible policy toward the Middle East countries was unable to be formed during the Cold-War period until the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990.
    From the 1990s onwards, several major events have occurred which have changed the overall scenario, including the end of the Cold War, the reunification of East and West Germany, European integration, as well as the beginning of the Israel-Palestinian peace process. These developments not only affected Germany’s Middle East policy, but also brought about a new momentum and opportunities, which has resulted in a more forceful, visible and significant role, which Germany now plays in the region. Other major factors resulting in Germany’s increasing participation and its support of the EU role in the Middle East, include the growing German interests in the region, political co-operation between Germany and the EU and the United States, Germany's special relationship with Israel, as well as others.
    Post Cold-War Germany shied away, for most of its existence during the time, from discussions about its interests in the Middle East, and the existence of German interests in the region has likewise, become hardly doubtful. Economically, there is a vital interest in a secure energy supply from the region; On the other hand, Germany’s security interests in the region can be boiled down to preventing the problems of regional conflicts, as well as non-conventional threats in the region from exporting into Europe, such as terrorism, arms proliferation, and refugee movements; Politically, Germany’s major interest in the region lies in a peaceful solution of the Israeli-Arab conflict – which can notably solve a dilemma in its development of bilateral relations with both Israel and the Arab states.
    The thesis has explored and concluded the shape of today’s German Middle East policy with five major elements:(1)energy, economic and security interests;(2)special circumstances and domestic considerations in facing the Israeli-Arab (Israeli-Palestinian) conflict;(3)to support the co-ordination and the integration of policies toward the Middle East region between the EU member states as a top priority;(4)to emphasize the necessity of international multilateral cooperation on the Middle-East issues(especially with the involvement and support from the United States);(5)Germany's historical responsibility and its special relationship with Israel.
    The author believes that in the future, as one of the major trends of the German foreign policy in the post Cold-War era, Germany’s participation in the Middle East affairs will become more active, as it has enough capability and potential to play such a role. It also has become more willing to exercise these attributes through concrete measures or actions, and will have a positive and profound influence upon the development of the region in the future, thus, the future development of its Middle East policy and its role in the region, ought to be put upon with more emphasis and paid with close attention.
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    “Germany's Middle East policy,” Berlin: Federal Foreign Office, 2006/6/30:
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    “Iran Signs Additional Protocol on Nuclear Safeguards,” IAEA Staff Report, 2003/9/18,
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    ”Middle East Peace Process,” Speech by Javier Solana, EU High Representative for CFSP before the European Parliament, Strasburg, 2006/4/5:
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    ”Middle East Quartet Statement following 21st Feburary Berlin Meeting,” UN, 2007/2/21: <http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2007/sg2124.doc.htm>
    ”Model Protocol additional to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards, (Additional Protocol)” IAEA, 1997/9,
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    “Movement in the Middle East conflict,” Berlin: Federal Government, 2007/1/18,
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    “Oil Economy 2007 - Issue number 16/2008,” Eurostat, 2008/5/27,
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    ”Overview of humanitarian assistance in 2008,” Berlin: Federal Foreign Office, 2008/12/19,
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    "Paris Summit for the Mediterranean," UE2008FR (France EU Presidency 2008 Official Site), 2008/7/13,
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    “Palestinian Territories - Situation and cooperation,” Berlin: Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2008/5,
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    “Policy Statement by Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel in the German Bundestag,” Berlin: Federal government, 2007/3/2,
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    “Powell Outlines U.S. Goals for Iraq, Middle East Peace,” Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State, 2004/5/16,
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    “President Bush Discusses the Middle East,” White House, 2007/7/16,
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    “Prime Minister Ariel Sharon’s Address on the Occasion of the Visit of German President Horst Köhler,” Israel: Prime Minister’s Office, 2005/2/2,
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    “Reinvigorating the Barcelona Process,” Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament to prepare the fourth meeting of Euro-Mediterranean foreign ministers, 2000/9/6,
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    “The 18-month work programme for the Germany EU Presidency”, German federal government,
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    “The broader Middle East – the European approach,” Speech by Benita Ferrero-Waldner (European Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighborhood Policy) in Bertelsmann Foundation's Jubilee 10th Kronberg Middle East Talks, Frankfurt, July 14th, 2006,
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    (二)專書
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    2.Asseburg, Muriel & Koepf, Tobias eds., Challenges for Policy-oriented Research on the Middle East. Berlin: Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (German Institute for International and Security Studies, SWP), 2007.
    3.Banchoff, Thomas, The German Problem Transformed: Institutions, Politics, and Foreign Policy, 1945–1995. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1999.
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    7.Hanelt, Christian-Peter, Luciani, Giacomo & Neugart, Felix eds., Regime Change in Iraq: The Transatlantic and Regional Dimensions, San Dominico de Fisole: European University Institute, 2003.
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    (三)期刊論文
    1.Asseburg, Muriel & Brumberg, Daniel eds., “The Challenge of Islamists for EU and US Policies: Conflict, Stability and Reform,” Berlin: Joint Publication of SWP and United States Institute of Peace (USIP), Washington, 2007/11.
    2.Asseburg, Muriel, “‘Hamastan vs. Fatahland’. A Chance for Progress in the Middle East?” SWP Comments 2007/C 14, Berlin: SWP, 2007/7, 8 pages.
    3.Angenendt, Steffen, “Perspectives of German Immigration Policy”, in Focus on Germany, 2007/5, London: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Referat Westliche Industrieländer, 2007, 8 pages.
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    8.Dassa Kaye, Dalia, “The Middle East and Transatlantic Relations: Where are We Heading?” in American Institute for Contemporary German Studies (AICGS), German and American Perspectives on Israel, Palestine and the Middle East Conflict - AICGS German-American Issues 06, Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006, pp. 25-29.
    9.Feldman, Lily Gardner, “Germany’s Policy Toward Israel and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Continuity and Change” in Overhaus, Marco & Maull, Hanns W. & Harnisch, Sebastian ed., German Foreign Policy in Dialogue: German Foreign Policy and the Middle East conflict, Germany: University of Trier, Volume 3, No. 7, 2002/1st quarter, p. 24-29
    10.Frangi, Abdallah, “Germany and the Middle East Peace Process: The Palestinian Perspective,” in Overhaus, Marco & Maull, Hanns W. & Harnisch, Sebastian ed., German Foreign Policy in Dialogue: German Foreign Policy and the Middle East conflict, Germany: University of Trier, Volume 3, No. 7, 2002/1st quarter, p. 34-37
    11.Feldman, Lily Gardner, “Germany as Leader in the Middle East Peace Process: From Reluctant Mediation to Active Engagement,” in AICGS Advisor, 2007/02/16, John Hopkins University, 2007.
    12.Feldman, Lily Gardner, “Whose Value? Whose Interests? The Multiple Influences on U.S. and German/European Policies toward the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” in AICGS, German and American Perspectives on Israel, Palestine and the Middle East Conflict - AICGS German-American Issues 06, Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006, pp. 7-12.
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    14.Glosemeyer, Iris & Perthes, Volker “Anti terror reforms - A snapshot on the situation in Saudi Arabia,” SWP Comments 2004/C 01, Berlin: SWP, 2004/1, 8 pages.
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    17.Hubel, Helmut, “The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict in the EU-U.S. Relationship,” in AICGS, German and American Perspectives on Israel, Palestine and the Middle East Conflict - AICGS German-American Issues 06, Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006, pp. 30- 32.
    18.James, Wither, “An Endangered Partnership: The Anglo-American Defense Relationship in the Early Twenty-first Century,” in European Security 15, (1), 2006/3, pp. 47–65.
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    20.Kaim, Marcus, “Expanding ISAF - Ending OEF: The Debate on the Mandates Sending German Troops to Afganistan,” SWP Comments 2007/C 16, Berlin: SWP, 2007, 4 pages.
    21.Karp, Regina, “The new German foreign policy consensus,” in the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Washington Quarterly 29(1), 2005/winter, pp. 61-82.
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    24.Kraig, Michael, “Assessing Alternative Security Frameworks For the Persian Gulf,” in Middle East Policy Council, Middle East Policy Journal Volume XI, number 3, Washington, D.C: Blackwell Publishing, 2004/Fall, pp. 139-156.
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    30.Moss, Kenneth B., “Constitutions, Military Force, and Implications for German American Relations”, SWP Comments 2005/C 56, Berlin: SWP, 2005, 5 pages.
    31.Noetzel, Timo & Scheer, Benjamin, “The German Army and Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan: The need for Strategy”, SWP Comments 2008/C 01, Berlin: SWP, 2008, 4 pages.
    32.Noetzel, Timo & Scheer, Benjamin, “German Special Operation Forces: The Case for Revision”, SWP Comments 2006/C 26, Berlin, SWP, 2006, 4 pages.
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    34.Overhaus, Marco, “Editorial: A ‘New’ German Foreign Policy in the Middle East?” in Overhaus, Marco & Maull, Hanns W. & Harnisch, Sebastian ed., German Foreign Policy in Dialogue: German Foreign Policy and the Middle East conflict, Germany: University of Trier, Volume 3, No. 7, 2002/1st Quarter, pp. 5-8.
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    36.Perthes, Volker, “The European Union and Iraq - Being Concerned Demands Involvement”, SWP Comments 2004/C 17, Berlin: SWP, 4 pages.
    37.Perthes, Volker, “Germany and the Middle East Conflict: What Interests, If Any?” in Overhaus, Marco & Maull, Hanns W. & Harnisch, Sebastian ed., German Foreign Policy in Dialogue: German Foreign Policy and the Middle East conflict, Germany: University of Trier, Volume 3, No. 7, 2002/1st quarter, pp. 8-15.
    38.Perthes, Volker, “Postwar Scenarios in Iraq and Regional Re-ordering,” in The International Spectator, London: Routledge, 37-4, October-December 2002, pp. 21-26.
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    40.Reissner, Johannes, “Nuclear Issue instead of Iran Policy? Europe's Difficult Position between Iran and the US”, SWP Comments 2005/C 11, Berlin: SWP, 2005, 4 pages.
    41.Reissner, Johannes, “The New Gap between Iran and the West”, SWP Comments 2005/C 35, Berlin: SWP, Berlin, 2005, 8 pages.
    42.Relanger, Steven, “Faces of Conflict: A Journalist’s Perspective,” in AICGS, German and American Perspectives on Israel, Palestine and the Middle East Conflict - AICGS German-American Issues 06, Baltimore: John Hopkins University, 2006, pp 37-39.
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    (四)會議論文
    1.Alterman, Jon B., “The Promise of Partnership: U.S-EU Coordination in the Middle East”, AICGS Policy Report #10 (Group Project Report “The United States and Germany in the Middle East”), AICGS, John Hopkins University, 2003.
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    3.Asseburg, Muriel, “German-Israeli Relations: Achievements and challenges for the Future”, presentation given at the workshop “40 years of diplomatic relations between Israel and Germany: Past, Present and Future” organized by the German and the Israeli embassies in Kopenhagen, 2005/6/6.
    4.Glosemeyer, Iris, “Promoting Democracy in the Middle East – Challenges for Transatlantic Cooperation”, Berlin: contribution to a panel discussion at the premises of the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2004/7/9
    5.Harks, Enno, “Europe's Future Oil and Gas Supply - North, East or South?”, contribution to Norwegain-German Discussion Forum 'Northern Areas' hold by the Willy-Brandt Stiftung, Berlin: SWP (German Institute for International and Security Affairs), 2004
    6.Glosemeyer, Iris & Perthes, Volker, “Anti terror reforms - A snapshot on the situation in Saudi Arabia,” Berlin: SWP (German Institute for International and Security Affairs), 2004/1.
    7.Mueller, Patrick, “Germany’s contribution to Europe’s Common Foreign Policy (EFP) in the Middle East – from brakeman to key supporter of a strong European role in Middle East peacemaking,” Paper for the Sixth Pan-European International Relations Conference, Turin, Italia, 2007/12/15.
    8.Steinberg, Guido, “The Iraqi Insurgency: Actors, Strategies and Structures”, Berlin: SWP, 2006.
    9.Perthes, Volker, “Beyond Peace: Israel, the Arab world, and Europe,” Berlin: SWP, published in Open Democracy, 2008/1/22, 5 pages.
    10.Perthes, Volker, “Germany and the Middle East”, Contribution to a conference organized by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Beijing “The European Union and Iraq: Being Concerned Demands Involvement”, Berlin: SWP, 2005.
    11.Perthes, Volker, “Germany and the Gulf: On the way to a policy?” Paper presented to the workshop “International Interests in the Gulf: Policy Implications for the GCC Members”, Abu Dhabi, Emirates Center for Strategic Studies, 2004.
    12.Perthes, Volker, “What to Do about Iraq – An European View’’, Washington D.C.: Contribution to the Daimler-Chrysler U.S-European Forum on World Order and Global Issues, 2004.
    13.Perthes, Volker & Eva, Wegner, “Enriching the Options: Europe, the United States and Iran”, for 4th Annual GMF Think Tank Symposiums in Vienna, Berlin: SWP, 2006/11/12.
    14.Pfaffenbach, Bernd,(Remarks delivered by Dr. Bernd Pfaffenbach, State Secretary in the German Ministry of Economics and Technology), “The Outlook for Economic Relations with the Broader Middle East and North Africa (BMENA),” paper at the Second Broader MENA Finance Conference 2007, Munich, 2007/2/9.
    15.Rudolf, Peter, “German Foreign Policy and Transatlantic Relations,” Paper for the conference on “German Foreign Policy in the 1990s and Beyond,” Berlin: SWP, 2004/7/14-17.
    16.Rudolf, Peter, “German Foreign Policy and Transatlantic Relations”, Paper for the conference on “German Foreign Policy in the 1990s and Beyond,” Brühl, 2004.
    17.Rudolf, Peter & Kemp, Geoffrey, “The Iranian Dilemma: Challenges for German and American Foreign Policy”, “German-American relations with Iran” conference report in April 21, 1997 AICGS, Johns Hopkins University, 1997.
    18.Thränert, Oliver, “Ending Suspicious Nuclear Activities in Iran: Discussing the European Approach”, working paper FG3, presentation at Brandeis University Boston, Berlin: SWP, 2004.
    19.Wagner, Wolfgang, “Renationalisation by Default: Germany's Mounting Gap Between Symbolism and Substance in European Security and Defense Policy,” Hague: paper presented at the Fifth Pan-European International Relations Conference, 2004/9/9-11.
    (五)新聞報導
    1.“Berlin Aims to Revive Mideast Quartet,” in Financial Times Deutschland, 2006/11/11.
    2.“Do Saudi Funds Fuel Extremism Across Europe?” The Wall Street Journal, 2003/12/30.
    3.“Germany, Israel See Eye-to-Eye on Palestinians, Iran,” in International Herald Tribune, 2006/12/11.
    4.“Germany’s Iran ties subject of questions: Prisoner-exchange role raises eyebrows,” in The Washington Time, 1996/7/30.
    5.“Germany's Merkel Says Search for Mideast Peace May Require ‘Unusual Steps’,“ in International Herald Tribune, 2006/12/14.
    6.“How a Diplomat Spread His Faith Shows Divide Within Saudi Society?”in The Wall Street Journal, 2003/12/10.
    7.“PM Olmert Criticizes German FM Steinmeier for Traveling to Syria,” Haaretz, 2006/12/12.
    8.“Rice Presses Arab States on Peace Plan,” Washington Post, A13, 2007/3/25.

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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交研究所
    95253032
    97
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0095253032
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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