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    Title: 非政府組織與低度開發國家關係之研究-以馬拉威共和國為例
    The Relationship between NGOs and LDCs- the case of the Republic of Malawi
    Authors: 常國祥
    Contributors: 姜家雄
    常國祥
    Keywords: 非政府組織
    低度開發國家
    漠南非洲
    馬拉威共和國
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-12-08 11:08:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   非政府組織現今全球性議題上,均扮演著重要的角色,其活動範圍亦遍及全球性、區域性及個別國家之中;目前一般學者對非政府組織的研究多偏重於理論探討,暨其在國際建制的角色與功能;既然非政府組織在善心的動念上是為了更平等的世界,因此研究者在本文研究對象上,決定選擇全球發展最不平等的低度開發國家,並且藉由實際走訪馬拉威共和國的經驗與例證,檢視非政府組織與該國的關係。
    本論文首先對非政府組織與低度開發國家做個別的一般性說明,並著重於討論低度開發國家形成原因,進而選擇漠南非洲做為低度開發國家的代表區域;嗣在漠南非洲國家的討論之中,聚焦於馬拉威共和國為個案研究的對象,期藉該國近年的穩定發展,排除政治與內戰之干擾,得到較為獨立的結論。本論文在經過系統性的研究後認為,非政府組織在低度開發國家從事服務遞送與災難救援等類型之活動,成效明顯較一般政府組織卓著,機動性亦強,惟可能導致該等國家之依賴心理,妨礙政府正常職能之建立;其次,非政府組織在低度開發國家中,對高階政治議題的參與,仍有根本性的限制;最後,低度開發國家中,跨國性非政府組織與國內非政府組織所獲資源與具備之能力對比太大,權力分配不均,使國內基層組織能量始終無法有效建立,亦難構建成為合理的組織模型,可能阻礙未來效率之提升。
    Although the activities of the Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) have spread all over the world, most studies still focus on the theory of NGOs or their roles in the international regime. This paper, meanwhile, has targeted to focus on the relation between NGOs and Least Developed Countries (LDCs), especially for the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    By analyzing the case of the Republic of Malawi, this paper has proved that for LDCs, the NGOs have more efficiency in the mission of rescue or deliver service than that in the local government or International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) because of their flexibility. Even NGOs have reached the achievement that is mentioned above, they still have difficulty involving in LDCs’ politics or decision-making process.
    Meanwhile, the conclusion also shows that LDCs may lie on NGOs’ support too much to develop their own functions as well.
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    Wickramasinghe, Nira. “The Idea of Civil Society in the South: Imaginings, Transplants, Designs.” Science & Society 69 (July 2005): 458-486.
    三、官方資料
    CIA, “The World Factbook.” www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html
    European Union Election Observation Mission-Malawi 2009. “A Well Managed Election Day-Important Shortcomings Demonstrate Need for Continued Reform.” 2009.05.21. http://www.eueommalawi.org/PDF/EU%20EOM%20Malawi%20 Press%20Release%2021%20May%202009.pdf
    International Monetary Fund. “IMF Executive Board Concludes 2006 Article IV Consultation with Malawi.” 2007.5.3. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pn/2007/pn0749.htm
    International Monetary Fund. “Statement by the Mission to Malawi.” 2007.10.17. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2007/pr07232.htm
    International Monetary Fund. “World Bank and IMF Support Malawi’s Completion Point under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative and Appoove Debt Relief under the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative.” 2006.09.01. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2006/pr06187.htm
    International Monetary Fund. “World Bank and IMF Support Malawi’s Completion Point under the Enhanced HIPC Initiative and Approve Debt Relief under the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative.”
    Malawi Electoral Commission. “2004 Parliamentary Results Summaries.” http://www.sdnp.org.mw/~solomon/mec/par_summaries.htm
    Malawi Electoral Commission. “Press Release: Determination of Nomination Papers for Presidential Candidates.” 2009.03.20. http://www.sdnp.org.mw/2009-elections /mec-on-presidential-candidates-20-3-9.html
    Malawi Electoral Commission. http://www.sdnp.org.mw/~demster/elections2009/ and http://www.sdnp.mw/~bless/elections_09/results.php?link=president
    Malawi Law Commission. “The Character of the Legislature under the Constitution of Malawi.” Constitutional Review Programme: Discussion Paper, No.2 (Lilongwe, Jun 2006)
    Tony Hill, “Three Generations of UN-Civil Society Relations,” United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/177-un/31824.html
    United Nations, Development Program. Human Development Index. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
    United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division. World Statistics Pocketbook Least Developed Countries. New York: United Nation, 2003.
    United Nations,General Assembly. “Summary of Informal Interactive Hearings of the General Assembly with Representatives of Non-governmental Organizations, Civil Society Organizations and the Private Sector.” A/61/162, 2006.7.19. http://www.un.org/special-rep/ohrlls/ldc/MTR/Civil-Society/LDC%20Hearing%20summary%20English.pdf
    UN Documents Cooperation Circles. “Paris Declaration and Programme of Action for the Least Developed Countries for the 1990s.” http://un-documemts.net/ac147-18.htm
    UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. “Ethiopia: New law on charities passed despite objections.” 2009.1.9. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?Reportid=82223
    United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)-Malawi. “Malawi Humanitarian Situation Report.“ 2007.5.31. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Malawi_external_Humanitarian_Update_31may07.pdf
    United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/1dc2004annex_en.pdf
    United Nations Development Program. “Human Development Indeces: A Statistical Update 2008 – HDI Rankings.” In Human Development Reports 2008. http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics
    United Nations Development Program. “Human Development Indeces: A Statistical Update 2008 – HDI Rankings.” In Human Development Reports 2008. http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics
    United Nations, General Assembly. “Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries.” A/RES/56/227, 2002.2.28. http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/494/54/PDF/N0149454.pdf?OpenElement
    UN-OHRLLS. “Facts About Least Developed Countries (LDCs).” http://www.unohrlls.org/UserFiles/File/Publications/Factsheet.pdf
    US Department of State. “History of Malawi.” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/7231.htm
    World Trade Organization. International Trade Statistics 2000 (Geneva: WTO, 2000), www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/stats2000_e.pdf
    World Trade Organization. “Plan of Action for the Least Development Countries.” http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/devel_e/action_plan.htm
    四、網路及新聞資料
    Abugida Ethiopian American Information Center. “Canadian MPs write letter to their Prime Minister asking to condemn Zenawi’s regime.” 2009.1.22. http://www.abugidainfo.com/p=7210
    African Studies Center of University of Pennsylvania. “Malawi’s Constitution.’’ http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Govern_Political/mlwi_const.html
    Afrol News. “One Busy Month for Malawi’s New President.” 2004.06.20. http://www.afrol.com/articles/13416
    Agence France Presse (AFP). “Malawi Court Dismiss Ex-president’s Bid for Office.” 2009.05.16. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/AleqM5gKoHs79 XbUJFG_ha2awvm4Fz0IRQ
    Agence France Presse (AFP). “Malawi’s Former President Complains of Intimidation.” 2009.02.22. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/AleqM5i_iE_OdsAaIzePatS834ECpVIXeA
    AllAfrica. “Malawi: NGO Keeping an Eye on Govt’s New Best Friend.” 2008.05.26. www.http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/200805270011.html
    Barrett, Alec. “Ahead of the Curve.” Harvard Political Review. 2008.4.22. http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/177-un/31825.html
    BBC. “Malawi’s President Rules ‘his way’.” 2004.09.01. http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3618948.stm
    Council for Non-Governmental Organizations. “Malawi NGO List.” 2003,02. http://www.sdnp.org.mw/ngo/ngo-mw-list.html
    Daily Times. “Civil Society Appeal on the NGO Bill No. 19 of 2000.” 2001.01.10. http://www.sdnp.org.mw/ngo/bill-2000/appeal.html
    Hill, Tony. “Three Generations of UN-Civil Society Relations.” United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service. http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/177-un/31824.html
    Institute for Security Studies. “Political History and Governance.” http://www.issafrica.org/index.php?link_id=14&slink_id=3936&link_type=12&slink_type=12&tmpl_id=3&link_country_id=48
    International Center for Not-for-Profit Law. “Country Reports: Sub-Saharan Africa.” IJNL Vol. 5 Iss. 1. http://www.icnl.org/KNOWLEDGE/IJNL/vol5iss1/cr_9.htm
    International Center for Not-for-Profit Law. “Global Trends in NGO Law.” http://www.icnl.org/globaltrends/
    Investor Relations Information Networks (IRIN). “Malawi: Concern Over Threat of Renewed Political Instability.” 2006.05.02. http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=58899
    Investor Relations Information Networks (IRIN). “Malawi: Donors Slow to Respond to Famine, NGO.” 2002.05.07. http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=31803
    Labour Resource and Research Institute. “Characteristics Extent and Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on African Local Economic Development.” http://www.sask.fi/Dovuments/ALRN/PilotStudies/ForeignDirectInvestment.pdf
    Malawi News. “Nakawu Should Re-examine its position.” 2008.01.12.
    Memorandum of Non-Governmental Organizations Bill. http://www.sdnp.org.mw/ngo/bill-2000/index.html
    National Democratic Institute. “Malawi Draft NGO Law: A Critical Review by International Experts.” http://www.ndi.org/node/12869
    Reserve Bamd of Malawi. “External Debt Statistics.” http://www.rbm.mw/data/ecodata/index.asp?content=externaldebt
    Reuters. “Malawi Gunning for Former President.” 2008.03.18. http://www.int.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=84&art_id=nw20080317153139234C832229
    The Daily Times. “Let’s Learn from Neighbours on Mainland China.” 2008.01.15.
    The Daily Times. “Malawi Dumps Taiwan: MOU Signed Dec 28.” 2008.01.15.
    The Daily Times. “People’s Reactions on Taiwan Ditching.” 2008.01.15.
    The Guardian. “Ethiopia curb on Charities alarms human rights activists.” 2009.1.26. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jan/26/ethiopia-charities-human-rights
    The Nation. “Malawi Dumps Taiwan.” 2008.01.15.
    The Sunday Times. “Highway to Beijing.” 2008.01.20.
    USAID. “USAID/Malawi Coordination Key to Success in Reaching Most Vulnerable People in Remote Rural Areas, 2003.” http://africastories.usaid.gov/seach_details. cfm?storyID=83&countryID=13§orID=0&yearID=3
    Weekend Nation. “Why Secrecy on China?” 2008.01.20.
    參、相關網站
    聯合國http://www.un.org/
    紅十字國際委員會http://www.icrc.org/
    明愛會http://www.caritas.org/
    樂施會http://www.oxfam.org/
    國際關懷http://www.care-international.org/
    美慈組織http://www.mercycorps.org/
    無國界醫生組織http://www.msf.org/
    拯救兒童http://www.savethechildren.net
    綠色和平組織http://www.greenpeace.org/
    美國CIA http://www.cia.gov/
    IMF http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm
    World Bank http://www.worldbank.org/
    中華民國外交部 http://www.mofa.gov.tw/webapp/mp?mp=1
    中央社 http://www.cna.com.tw/
    基督教長老教會http://www.taian.org.tw/malawi/workatmalawi.htm
    馬拉威阿彌陀佛關懷中心http://blog.huayuworld.org/ASALYGROUP/13942/2009/05/20/31328
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交研究所
    92253031
    98
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0922530311
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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