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    題名: 1973-1975美國對越南外交政策
    U.S. foreign policy toward vietnam from 1973 to 1975
    作者: 陳秋雅
    貢獻者: 陳鴻瑜
    陳秋雅
    關鍵詞: 越南戰爭
    巴黎和平協定
    尼克森
    北越
    南越
    日期: 2010
    上傳時間: 2011-09-29 18:35:42 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 越南戰爭是美國對外關係史上不可抹滅的一頁。本論文探討由自1973年一月「巴黎和平協定」簽署,美軍撤出越南,到1975年4月南越覆亡這段時間的美越關係。
    本文試圖透過近年來美國官方所公佈之解密檔案文獻,國會記錄,越戰相關重要人物之回憶錄,以及相關著作等,重現1973-1975年間美越關係之重要事件,再以此為基礎加以分析。主要分三個面向著手:首先討論美國政策改變,簽署「巴黎和平協定」的考量;接著是在「巴黎和平協定」之下,美國對其盟邦南越的安排與承諾;最後探討北越違反「巴黎和平協定」,派軍隊入侵南越的同時,美國的態度以及立場。
    參考文獻: 一、 官方出版品:
    Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in South Viet-Nam (Paris, 27 January 1973), in The Department of State Bulletin. 12.02.1973, No vol. XVIII, pp. 169-188.
    Blanton, Tom and William Burr and Peter Kornbluh, The Kissinger State Department Telcons, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 135,October 2004.
    Blanton, Thomas S.,ed., Intelligence and Vietnam: The Top Secret 1969 State Department Study. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 121, May 2004.
    Burr, William and Jeffrey Kimball ed., Nixon's Nuclear Ploy: The Vietnam Negotiations and the Joint Chiefs of Staff Readiness Test, October 1969, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 81, December 2002.
    Blanton, Thomas and Dr. William Burr ed., The Kissinger Telcons, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 123, May 2004.
    Congressional Record, 93rd Congress - Additional Military Aid to Vietnam is Advised, 06 May 1974.
    Congressional Record, 93rd Senate, Vol. 119, No. 135 - Continuing Involvement in South Vietnam, 18 September 1973.
    Congressional Record, 93rd Congress - Additional Military Aid to Vietnam is Ill Advised , 06 May 1974.
    Congressional Record, 94th Congress., 1st session., 14 march 1975.
    Defense Attache Office, U.S. Embassy Saigon, RVNAF Quarterly Assessment, 1st FY 1975, 1 November 1974.
    Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Information Memorandum: Saigon CIA Station Chief's Assessment of the Current Military Situation in South Vietnam, March 17, 1975.
    Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Memorandum, Trip to south east Asia, April 11 1975.
    House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Hearing on Fiscal Year 1975 Foreign Assistance Request, 93rd Congress.
    Indochina Resource Center, Vietnam: What Kind of Peace? Documents and Analysis of the 1973 Paris Agreement on Vietnam,Washington, D.C.: Indochina Resource Center, 1973.
    Lord, Winston, “Memco of Your Conversations with Chou En-lai,” Memorandum for Dr. Henry A. Kissinger, Top Secret/Sensitive/Exclusively Eyes only, July 29, 1971. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB145/09.pdf
    Lowenstein, James G. and Richard M. Moose, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, April 1973. Staff Report, Subcommittee on United States Security Agreements and Commitments abroad, Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Washington: GPO, 1973
    Moss, Richard and Luke Nichter ed., Dr. Kissinger, Mr. President" Kissinger's Telcons and Nixon's Tapes, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 263 - Part 2, December 24, 2008.
    Nixon, Richard. United States Foreign Policy for the 1970s: A Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 25 February 1971.
    Nixon White House Considered Nuclear Options Against North Vietnam, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 195
    Nixon Speech, November 3 1969, U.S. Department of State Bulletin, 61. November 24, 1979.
    Nixon speech, April 30 1970, U.S. Department of State Bulletin, 62. May 18, 1970.
    National Security Archive Publishes Digitized Set of 2,100 Henry Kissinger "Memcons" Recounting the Secret Diplomacy of the Nixon-Ford Era, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 192.
    National Security Decision Memorandum, NSDM 52, Quarterly Report on the State of the War and Vietnamization, April 10, 1970
    National Security Study Memorandum, Vietnamizing the War, April 10, 1969
    National Security Study Memorandum, Vietnam, April 10, 1969
    Prados, John, Fighting the War in Southeast Asia, 1961-1973, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 248, (April ,2008)
    Robert McNamara: An Appreciation, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 280, July 2009.
    Rogers, Williams P., United States Foreign Policy Report, 1969-1970: A Report of the Secretary of state, Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1971.
    Senate Committee on Appropriations, Hearings on Foreign Assistances and Related Programs Appropriation FY1975, 93rd Congress, 2nd session, p.1318
    The CIA's Vietnam Histories-Newly-Declassified CIA Histories Show Its Involvement in Every Aspect of the Indochina War, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 283(August, 2009)
    U.S. Department of Defense, The Pentagon Papers, Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.
    U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1952-54, Volume 13: Indochina, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 1982.
    U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Volume I, Foundations of Foreign Policy, 1969-1972.Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 2003.
    U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Volume VI, Vietnam, January 1969-July1970.Washington, United States Government Printing Office, 2006.
    U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Volume XX, Southeast Asia, 1969-1972, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 2006.
    U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: 1969-1976 Vietnam: Volume X, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, 2010.
    U.S. Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, Information Memorandum: Saigon CIA Station Chief's Assessment of the Current Military Situation in South Vietnam, March 17, 1975. Source: Digital National Security Archive, Item number: VW01326.
    U.S. Executive Office of the President, “Henry Kissinger's Meeting with Leonid Brezhnev,” Memorandum, April 20, 1972. Digital National Security Archive (DNSA). Item number: VW00941.
    二、中文專書
    M.J.C. Ville著,韋洪武譯,王業立主編,最新美國政治,台北:韋伯文化2004年。
    Macridis, Roy編, 胡祖慶譯,當代各國外交政策,台北:國立編譯館,1991年。
    McNamara, Robert著,李芬芳、汪仲譯,戰之罪 麥納瑪拉越戰回顧,台北:智庫文化,1996年。
    Schulzinger, Robert D. 著,席代岳譯,鏖鬥的年代—1941-1975年間的美越關係,台北:麥田,2001年。
    Noam Chomsky著,童新耕譯,反思甘迺迪王朝 : 甘迺迪、越南戰爭和美國的政治文化,上海 : 上海譯文出版社,2006年。
    武文祥著,譚逸譯,越戰的回顧與檢討,台北:黎明文化,1985年。
    張良任著,尼克森政府的越南政策,臺北:商務印書館, 1983。
    易君博著,政治理論與研究方法,臺北:三民書局,1993。
    陳鴻瑜著,越南近現代史,臺北:鼎文書局, 2009。
    陳治世著,美國政府與政治,台灣商務印書館,1986年。
    曾瓊葉主編,越戰憶往口述歷史,台北市: 國防部史政編譯室,2008。
    關中著,美國意識形態與外交政策,台灣商務出版社,台北市,2005年。
    三、中文期刊雜誌
    老兵,「1974年中共與南越-西沙之戰」,陸軍學術月刊,35:400,1998年12月,頁46-60。
    何世同 ,「1975年南越亡國之戰研析」,中華戰略學刊,第97期,2008年6月,頁202-237。
    何世同,「論奠邊府之戰」,中華戰略學刊,2007年12,頁278-304。
    李偉成,「越南戰爭對尼克森外交決策的影響」,幼獅月刊,第44期,1976年7月,第63-69頁。
    孫建中,「1972年越戰春季攻勢之研析」,空軍學術月刊,第576期,1994年11月,頁26-39。
    唐仁俊,「美國參加越戰的回顧與省思」,空軍學術月刊,2001年11月,540,頁30-40。
    黃詩雯,「1964年東京灣事件及其影響」,亞太研究論壇,第38期, 2007年12月,頁125-151。
    藍雪川,「一九六九年越戰春節攻勢之研析」,軍事史評論,第15期,2008年6月, pp.107-143.
    蘇耿輝,「一九七五年南越的軍事潰敗與淪亡之研究」,軍事史評論,第12期,2005年6月,頁101-144。
    蘇耿輝,「南越吳廷琰政權興衰之研究(1954-1963)」,軍事史評論,第11期,2004年6月,頁85-153。
    謝有明,「美國介入越戰與光榮撤退之研究」,黃埔學報,第41期,2001年9月,頁67-80。
    魏良才,「越戰故事中未完結的篇章:美國「戰俘」及「失蹤美軍」問題之探討」,國立政治大學歷史學報,第17期,民89.05,頁289-319。
    戴雲青,「四國檔案曝光,解讀越戰秘辛」,亞洲週刊,2000年5月,14:19,頁16-19。
    四、碩博士論文
    陳克誠 ,尼克森總統﹑媒體與民意-以「越戰越南化」政策為例,臺北市:中國文化大學美國研究所,1992年。 
    喬一名,美國尼克森總統對越戰政策之硏究(1969-1972),臺北市 : 國立政治大學東亞硏究所, 民64年5月。
    黃榮護,越戰對美國外交政策的影響,臺北市 : 國立政治大學外交硏究所,民75年6月。
    黃詩雯,1964年東京灣事件與美國對越南之政策,臺北市: 國立政治大學外交研究所,民國95年6月。
    五、西文專書
    Allen, Douglas, and Ngo Vinh Long, eds. Coming to Terms: Indochina, the United States and the War. USA: Westview Press, 1991.
    Ang, Cheng Guan, Ending the Vietnam War: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective. UK: Routledge, 2003.
    Berman, Larry,No Peace, No Honor: Nixon, Kissinger, and Betrayal in Vietnam. Free Press ,2001.
    Berman, Larry. Planning a Tragedy: The Americanization of the War in Vietnam. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1982).
    Brady, John J United States Aid to Indochina: Report of a Staff Survey Team to South Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. U.S. Govt. Print. Off 1974.
    Cao Van Vien, Final Collapse, USA: University Press of the Pacific, 2005.
    Currey, Cecil B., Victory at any Cost: The Genius of Viet Nam’s Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Canada: Brassey's Inc , 2000.
    Dacy, Douglas C. ,Foreign Aid, War, and Economic Development: South Vietnam, 1955-1975. New York: Cambridge University Press 2005.
    Duiker, William J., U.S. Containment Policy and Conflict in Indochina, California: Stanford University Press, 1994.
    Dawson, Alan, 55 Days: The Fall of South Vietnam. USA: Prentice-Hall, 1977.
    Dougan, Clark, et al. The False Peace: 1972-74 (Vietnam Experience) Time Life Education; illustrated edition edition, 1986.
    Elliott, David W. P. ed. ,The Third Indochina Conflict. USA: Westview Press, 1981.
    Gaiduk, Ilya V., Soviet Union and the Vietnam War, Chicago: Ivan R Dee,1996.
    Goodman, Allan E., The Lost Peace: America’s Search for a Negotiated Settlement of the Vietnam War, Stanford: Hoover Institute, 1978.
    Haley, P. E. ,Congress and the Fall of South Vietnam and Cambodia, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982.
    Hall, Mitchell K., Historical Dictionary of the Nixon-Ford Era. USA: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2008.
    Hall, Mitchell K. ed., Vietnam War Era- People and Perspectives. California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2009.
    Horne, Alistair, Kissinger-1973, the Crucial Tear, USA: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
    Isaacs, Arnold R. ,Without Hornor-Defeat in Vietnam and Combodia. Baltimore: The John Hopskins University Press, 1983.
    Joes, Anthony James., The War for South Viet Nam, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1989.
    Johns, Andrew L., Vietnam’s Second Front : Domestic Politics, the Republican Party, and the War, USA: The University of Kentucky, 2010.
    Kissinger, Henry A., Years of Upheaval, USA: Little Brown & Co, 1982
    Kissinger, Henry A. ,Years of Renewal. New York: Simon&Schuster Inc., 1999.
    Kissinger, Henry A., Ending the Vietnam War: A History of America’s Involvement in and Extrication from the Vietnam War, New York: Simon&Schuster Inc., 2003.
    Lee, J. Edward , and H. C. Haynsworth. Nixon, Ford and the Abandonment of South Vietnam. USA: McFarland & Company 2002.
    Lipsman, Samuel, The Fall of the South (Vietnam Experience). Time Life Education; illustrated edition edition, 1986.
    Logevall, Federik, and Andrew Preston, eds. Nixon in the World: American Foreign Relations, 1969-1977. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    Loi, Luu Van, 50 Years of Vietnamese Diplomacy 1945-1995 , Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers, 2000.
    McMahon, Robert J., ed. , Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
    Moss, George Donelson, Vietnam, an American ordeal, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006.
    Nguyen Tien Hung and Jerrold L. Schecter, The palace file, New York: Harper&Row Publishers, 1986.
    Porter , Gareth, A Peace Denied: the United States, Vietnam and the Paris Agreement, USA: Indiana University Press,1975.
    Pike, Douglas , History of Vietnamese Communism, 1925-1976. California: Hoover Institution press, 1979.
    Pollock, Alan. Vietnam: Conflict and Change in Indochina. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
    Ravenal, Earl C. Large-Scale Foreign Policy Change : The Nixon Doctrine as History and Portent, Berkeley : Institute of International Studies, University of California, 1989.
    Rosenau, William, Us Internal Security Assistance to South Vietnam: Insurgency, Subversion and Public Order passure: Routledge, 2005.
    Rotter, Andrew J., The path to Vietnam: Origins of the American Commitment to Southeast Asia, Cornell University Press, 1987
    Vo Nguyen Giap, The General Headquarters in the Spring of Brilliant Victory (Memoirs) The Gino Publishers, Hanoi, 2002.
    Westad, Odd Arne, and Sophie Quinn-Judge, eds, The Third Indochina War: Conflicts between China, Vietnam and Combodia, 1972-79. New York: Routledge, 2006.
    Willbanks, James H. ,The Tet Offensive-a Concise History, USA: Columbia University Press, 2007.
    Willbanks, James H. , Abandoning Vietnam: How America Left and South Vietnam Lost Its War, Lawrence : University Press of Kansas, 2004.
    Williams, William Appleman, et al., eds., America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company 1989.
    Witcher, Russ, The Debate in the U.S. Senate About the War in South Vietnam and Cambodia, 1973-1975: Chronicling the Struggle for Power between the Congress and the Presidency. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008.
    Van Tien Dung, Our Great Spring Victory, Monthly Review Press, 1977.
    六、西文期刊
    Burstein, Paul and William Freudenburg, “Ending the Vietnam War: Components of Change in Senate Voting on Vietnam War Bills,” The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 82, No. 5 (Mar., 1977), pp. 991-1006.
    Drake, Jeff, “How the U.S. Got Involved in Vietnam, http://www.vietvet.org/jeffviet.htm
    Gawthorpe, Andrew J., “The Ford Administration and Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific after the Fall of Saigon, ”The Historical Journal, Vol.52, No.3, September 2009, pp.697-716.
    Gaddis, John Lewis, “Containment: Its Past and Future,” International Security, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Spring, 1981), pp. 74-102.
    Girling, J. L. S., “Nixon's "Algeria"-Doctrine and Disengagement in Indochina Nixon's "Algeria"-Doctrine and Disengagement in Indochina,”Pacific Affairs, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Winter, 1971-1972), pp. 527-544.
    Kissinger, Henry A., “ The Viet Nam Negotiations,” Foreign Affairs, January 1969, Vol.47, no.2 pp.211-234.
    Lockwood, William W.,“Reviewed work(s): The Struggle for Indochina by Ellen J. Hammer,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 48, No. 4 (Dec., 1954), pp. 1162-1164.
    Marr, David G., “Reviewed work(s): Communism in Indochina: New Perspectives. by Joseph J. Zasloff; Mac-Alister Brown,” The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 2 (Feb., 1977), pp. 384-385.
    McHale, Shawn,“Book Review: Why the North Won the Vietnam War,” The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 62, No. 3,August 2003, pp. 1009-1010.
    Merli, M. Giovanna, “Socioeconomic Background and War Mortality during Vietnam's Wars,” Demography, Vol. 37, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 1-15.
    Moise, Edwin E., “Reviewed work(s): The Second Indochina War: A Short Political and Military History, 1954-1975. by William S. Turley,”Pacific Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 1 (Spring, 1987), pp. 138-139.
    Springhall, John, “Kicking out the Vietminh': How Britain Allowed France to Reoccupy South Indochina, 1945-46,” Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2005, pp. 115-130.
    Thee, Marek, “War and Peace in Indochina: US Asian and Pacific Policies,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 10, No. 1/2 ,1973, pp. 51-70.

    七、網際網路資源
    美國國家安全局網頁, http://www.nsa.gov/home_html.cfm
    美國國家安全局數位資料庫, Digital National Security Archive, http://nsarchive.chadwyck.com/home.do
    尼克森圖書館, http://www.nixonlibrary.gov/index.php
    福特圖書館, http://www.fordlibrarymuseum.gov/library/aboutlib.asp
    美國國務院相關文獻
    http://www.state.gov/www/about_state/history/vol_i/255_308.html
    http://www.state.gov/www/global/arms/treaties/salt1.html
    威爾遜國際學術中心—冷戰國際史計畫, http://wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=topics.home
    美國克雷蒙森大學—摩伊斯(Edwin E. Moïse)教授編錄之越戰參考書目http://www.clemson.edu
    德州理工大學—越南計畫, http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/index.htm
    1975年4月23日福特總統在杜蘭大學(University of Tulane)演講全文。 http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/ford-tulane.htm
    蘇聯與中國對北越援助金額預測:
    http://www.foia.cia.gov/docs/DOC_0001166499/DOC_0001166499.pdf
    維基百科全書 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
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    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097253012
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[外交學系] 學位論文

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