Studies that examine data from drug-abusing parents typically investigate the impact of parental behavior on their children's well-being and focus almost exclusively on the impact of mothers. Other approaches have examined the level of parental involvement among parents in drug treatment and find that a higher level of parental involvement is related to lower levels of addiction severity. Recent research examines the specific role of fathers and suggests that the promotion of responsible parenting may serve as a positive motivational influence among fathers participating in drug treatment. The present study investigated the influence of the living arrangement on improvements in HIV-risk reduction variables among 151 IDU parents who participated in the Community-friendly Health Recovery Program intervention. A gender×living arrangement interaction demonstrated greater enhancements in social and personal motivation to reduce HIV risk among fathers currently living with their children vs. fathers not living with their children while the opposite pattern of outcomes was demonstrated for mothers. Findings indicate that a parenting role that includes living with children may differentially influence parents' HIV-risk reduction motivation as a function of gender.