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    Title: 以優選理論分析美濃客語陰平變調
    Yinping Tone Sandhi in Meinong Hakka: An OT Analysis
    Authors: 童啟美
    Tung, Chi-Mei
    Contributors: 蕭宇超
    Hsiao, Yuchau E.
    童啟美
    Tung, Chi-Mei
    Keywords: 美濃客語
    陰平變調
    變調範疇
    優選理論
    並存音韻理論
    Meinong Hakka
    Yinping Tone Sandhi
    Tonal Domain
    Optimality Theory
    Cophonology Theory
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2011-10-05 14:25:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文以優選理論的觀點分析美濃客語的陰平變調。討論可分為兩部分,首先,針對於變調的範疇,文章從句法與音韻的介面關係探討陰平變調的範疇,結果顯示陰平變調是以語調詞組(Intonational Phrase)作為變調的範疇,而這也為韻律結構的存在提供了證據。語調詞組的形成與感知單位(Sense Unit Condition)和重組(Restructuring)有密切的關係。另外,也探討了語調詞組中的特殊結構,發現語料支持Nespor & Vogel (1986)的假設,即特殊結構可以先形成一個獨立的語調詞組。
    探討完變調範疇之後,將以優選理論進行分析。本文提出兩組制約:聲調制約和韻律制約。聲調制約著重在解釋變調的運作,而韻律制約則負責解釋變調範疇的劃分,這兩組制約不僅能解釋一般句子的變調,亦能對特殊結構的變調現象予以充分的說明。針對於變讀的情形,本文以並存音韻理論(Cophonology Theory)來作解釋,藉由*IP和ALIGN-R (Non-adjunct XP, IP)兩個制約的重新排序,得到變調與不變調兩種讀法的範疇的劃分。
    This thesis is aimed at analyzing Yinping tone sandhi in Meinong Hakka from the perspective of Optimality Theory. The discussion is divided into two parts. First, this thesis explores the tonal domain in terms of the interface of syntax and phonology. The analysis indicates that the tonal domain is founded on an intonational phrase. The formation of an intonational phrase is based on the Sense Unit Condition (Selkirk, 1984) and is closely related to restructuring (Nespor and Vogel, 1986). The special constructions of IPs are also investigated. The data supports the hypothesis proposed by Nespor and Vogel (1986), namely, that these special constructions have the privilege to form an isolated intonational phrase.
    Secondly, Optimality Theory is adopted to analyze the data after exploring the tonal domain. Two set of constraints are proposed in this thesis. One is that of tonal constraints, which are mainly concerned with the processing of tone sandhi. The other is that of prosodic constraints, which are responsible for explaining the delimitation of the tonal domains of the data. The two sets of constraints can be used to account for the operation of the sandhi phenomena in ordinary sentences and also in special constructions. The alternative readings are explained by means of the re-ranking of *IP and ALIGN-R (Non-adjunct XP, IP) from the perspective of Cophonology Theory.
    Reference: English References
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    Chang, Tsai-fang. 2002. An Optimality Theory Approach to Hai-lu Hakka Phononlogy: Tone Sandhi, Glide Formation, and Syllable Contraction. MA Thesis, National Chengchi University.
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    Hsiao, Yuchau E. 2008. Yinping Tone Sandhi in Two Hakka Dialects. In Yuchau E. Hsiao, Hui-chuan Hsu, Lian-Hee Wee, & Dah-an Ho (eds.). Interfaces in Chinese Phonology: Festschrift in Honor of Matthew Y. Chen on His 70th Birthday (pp.70-97). Taipei: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.
    Hsiao, Yuchau E. 2009. Serial Tone Changes in Adjective Triplication: Evidence from Taiwanese and Hakka. Paper presented at the 2nd Theoretical Phonology Conference. National Chengchi University.
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    Hsu, Kui-ping & Hsiao, Yuchau E. 1994. Hakka Yinping Tone Sandhi From a Syntactic Perspective. Paper for the Third International Symposium on Chinese Phonology and the Twelfth Annual Conference of the Association of Chinese Phonology. Hsinchu: National Tsing Hua University.
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    Hung, Tony T. N. 1987. Syntactic and Semantic Aspects of Chinese Tone Sandhi. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California at San Diego.
    Inkelas, Sharon & Cheryl Zoll. 2007. Is grammar dependence real? A comparison between cophonological and indexed constraint approaches to morphonologically conditioned phonology. Linguistics 45(1): 133-171.
    Kager, Rene. 1999. Optimality Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kaisse, Ellen. 1985. Connected Speech : The Interaction of Syntax and Phonology. London: Academic Press.
    Lin, Hui-shan. 2001. Constraint Reranking and Mandarin Tone Sandhi. Proceedings of the 7th International and 19th National Conferences on Chinese Phonology: 424-441. National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lin, Hui-shan. 2004. Directionality in Tone Sandhi and the Effect of Identity Preservation. Ph.D. Dissertation, National Tsing Hua University.
    Lin, Hui-shan. 2005. Prosodic correspondence in Tone Sandhi. UST Working Papers in Linguistics 1:229-265.
    Lin, Hui-shan. 2011. Sequential and Tonal Markedness in Dongshi Hakka Tone Sandhi. Language and Linguistics 12.2:313-357.
    McCarthy, John J. 2008. Doing Optimality Theory: Applying Theory to Data. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
    McCarthy, John J. & Alan Prince. 1993. Generalized Alignment. In G. Booij and J. Van Marle (eds.). Yearbook of Morphology (pp.79-153). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
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    Selkirk, Elizabeth. 1986. On Derived Domain in Sentence Phonology. Phonology Yearbook 3:371-405.
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    Reference to Iberian Languages (pp. 11-58). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
    Shih, Chilin. 1986. The Prosodic Domain of Tone Sandhi in Chinese. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California.
    Chinese References
    張屏生。2007。台灣地區漢語方言的語音和詞彙。台南市:開朗雜誌。
    蕭宇超。2000。台灣閩南語之優選變調。漢學研究第18卷特刊。頁25-40。
    鍾榮富。2001。福爾摩沙的烙印---台灣客家話導論。台北市:文建會。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    語言學研究所
    97555013
    99
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097555013
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[語言學研究所] 學位論文

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