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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/51307
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/51307


    Title: 不同脈絡下,青少年的認同策略與適應問題之關係
    The relationship between adolescents’ identity strategies and adjustment problems in different contexts
    Authors: 曾幼涵
    Tseng Yu Han
    Contributors: 許文耀
    Hsu Wen Yau
    曾幼涵
    Tseng Yu Han
    Keywords: 認同策略
    青少年適應問題
    脈絡
    認同範疇
    文化
    性別差異
    發展階段
    identity strategy
    adolescents’ adjustment problem
    context
    identity domains
    culture
    gender differences
    developmental stages
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2011-10-05 14:39:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究目的是欲探討青少年處理認同議題的方式(即訊息取向、規範取向、散漫-逃避取向等三種認同策略)與適應問題之關係。青少年採用之認同策略與適應問題之關係為何?過去的研究未能獲得一致的結論。本研究認為主要的理由有二:一是測量工具的問題,過去常被研究者採用的測量工具—認同風格量表,僅能測得個體對於認同策略的「偏好」,而忽略了在不同的認同範疇下,青少年可能會採用不同的認同策略,進而影響認同策略與適應的關係;一是理論觀點的問題,過去這方面的研究多是從西方文化的角度切入,而未考量文化差異之影響。這兩點理由反映出,並非某一種認同策略必然對應於特定的適應結果,而是受到「脈絡」的影響。為此,本研究首先界定出青少年階段較為重要的兩種認同範疇:學習範疇與日常活動範疇,並將三種認同策略放在此兩種特定的認同範疇下,以編製新的測量工具—青少年認同策略量表;進而探討在台灣社會文化下,不同認同範疇之認同策略與青少年適應問題之關係。此外,本研究進一步探討青少年的個別差異(包括性別差異與發展階段之不同)如何調節認同策略與適應問題之關係。
    本研究選取946位台北地區的國、高中在學生為研究受試,以自陳量表的方式填答背景資料、青少年認同策略量表,與青少年自陳量表(含內、外化問題行為)。男女人數分別為487與459人;國、高中生人數分別為456與490人。研究結果顯示,就整體青少年而言,隨著脈絡之不同,三種認同策略與青少年適應問題之關聯也有所不同。不同於西方文化強調訊息取向的適應價值,在台灣社會文化下,規範取向較有利於青少年適應,訊息取向次之,散漫-逃避取向則不利於青少年適應。認同範疇的不同決定了訊息取向對於適應的影響方向:學習範疇的訊息取向可些微降低適應問題,日常活動範疇的訊息取向則增加適應問題。
    青少年在性別與發展階段的異質性則調節了認同策略與適應問題之關係。在性別方面,無論男女,規範取向皆可降低受試的適應問題,散漫-逃避取向則增加適應問題;但只有對男生而言,訊息取向才會顯著影響其適應問題。在發展階段方面,對國中生來說,只有學習範疇的規範取向與散漫-逃避取向影響其適應問題,日常活動範疇的認同策略並不具有影響力。在高中階段,兩種認同範疇的認同策略皆對於適應問題有影響,訊息取向對於適應問題的影響力到高中階段才被凸顯。
    本研究結果說明了,有關認青少年同策略之使用與適應問題之關係,需放在脈絡下來探討;不同脈絡下,認同策略可能帶來不同的適應結果。而在特定脈絡下,青少年的個別差異則可調節認同策略與適應問題之關係。根據研究結果,我們進一步從研究者與實務者的角度來討論三種認同策略對於青少年之功能。
    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the ways in which adolescents approach identity issues (i.e. the three identity strategies: information-oriented, norm-oriented, and diffuse/avoidant-oriented) and adjustment problems. The relationship between identity strategies and adolescents adjustment problems has not been consistently replicated. Two reasons were considered: one was the limit of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI), which was extensively used to measure identity strategies. However, ISI could only measure the individuals’ “preference” of specific identity strategy, it ignored that people may use different identity strategies in different contexts. The other reason was the limit of theoretical view. In the past, such research issue was executed by the Western researchers; they didn’t consider the effects of culture differences. Our assumption was that one specific identity strategy will not necessary bring a specific adjustment outcome, but be influenced by “contexts”. For testing this assumption, we first identified two important identity domains in adolescence: learning domain and life-activity domain. Then, the new measurement tool named the Identity Strategy Inventory for Adolescence (ISI-A) was developed which measure three identity strategies in the two identity domains. Then, we used ISI-A to explore the relationship between adolescents’ identity strategies and adjustment problems in Taiwan. Furthermore, we explore how the individual differences (gender difference and different developmental stage) moderate the relationship between identity strategies and adolescent’s adjustment problems.
    946 students (487 males, 456 junior high school students) in junior and senior high schools in Taipei were recruited. All students completed questionnaires on personal and family background, ISI-A, and Youth Self-Report Checklist (YSR) which measured externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors. Results indicated that the relationship between identity strategies and adjustment problems is different in different context. Information-oriented was considered the beneficial identity strategy in Western culture, but we found norm-oriented was more beneficial to adolescents’ adjustment than information-oriented. Like the findings in Western culture, we found diffuse/avoidant-oriented was detrimental to adolescents’ adjustment. Different identity domains determine the values of information-oriented. In learning domain, information-oriented was somewhat beneficial to adjustment, but in life-activity domain, information-oriented was detrimental to adjustment.
    Gender differences and developmental stages in adolescence moderate the relationship between identity strategies and adjustment problems. In the two identity domains, norm-oriented reduce and diffuse/avoidant-oriented increase adolescents’ adjustment problems across different genders, but information-oriented influence only male’s adjustment problems. For junior high school’s students, adjustment problem was influenced by norm- and diffuse/avoidant-oriented in learning domain, but wasn’t by any identity strategies in life-activity domain. For senior high school’s students, however, identity strategies in the two identity domains have effect on adjustment problems. Furthermore, the influence of information-oriented was highlighted in senior high school students.
    These findings indicate that it’s necessary to consider the relationship between adolescents’ identity strategies and adjustment problems in “contexts”. A specific identity strategy brings to different adjustment outcomes in different context. In a specific context, individual differences in adolescence moderate the relationship between identity strategies and adjustment problems. Based on these findings, we further discussed the three identity strategies’ function from the viewpoint of researcher and practitioner.
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