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    Title: 開放收養家庭經驗初探-正向經驗的啟發
    A Research on Inspiration of Positive Experiences for Open Adoption Families
    Authors: 韓婷婷
    Han,Ting Ting
    Contributors: 謝美娥
    韓婷婷
    Han,Ting Ting
    Keywords: 開放收養
    兒童福利服務
    收養服務
    open adoption
    children welfare service
    adoption service
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2011-10-11 17:03:15 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究採用質性深度訪談方法探討開放收養家庭經驗,分析收養家庭與出養家庭互動的過程與感受,並彙整成功開放收養的因素,探討開放收養家庭之需求。透過本研究希望瞭解:第一,本土開放收養家庭的經驗,瞭解收養家庭與出養家庭接觸的過程及感受;第二,歸納成功開放收養的因素,提出對收養服務之具體建議;第三,彙整開放收養家庭需求,提供未來收養服務及實務工作相關參考。本研究與兒童福利聯盟收出養組合作,選取符合開放收養定義之收養人參與研究,並將研究結果形成建議,提供收出養實務工作及潛在收養人參考。
    依據研究目的,研究者邀請北部地區八個開放收養家庭(共計十位收養人)進行一對一的深度訪談,研究結果如下列幾點:
    一、「開放收養」對收出養三方皆有正面影響,有助於創造收出養雙方家庭正向的互動經驗,提升養父母對出養家庭的同理心、促使生父母對出養決定放心,並讓被收養者清楚知道自己並未被遺棄,建立對身世的正面記憶。
    二、收養人開放收養的動機包括下述五項:讓孩子知道自己是被愛的、對原生家庭有同理心、視為孩子應得的機會、認為孩子有需要、及期待更了解孩子。
    三、在開放收養接觸經驗方面,收養人對開放見面展現高度接納、包容、同理及瞭解,肯定開放收養之優勢與結果。
    四、影響成功開放收養的因素可歸納如下述:(一)「內部動力因素」:養父母支持開放的信念、尊重孩子的意願、孩子不是私有財的觀念、同理出養家庭的不捨、期望讓出養家庭放心、對出養家庭印象良好以及養父母之間溝通良好,呈現養父母以兒童最佳利益優先和尊重出養方的理念,促成開放結果順利產生;(二)「外部增強因素」:正向的家庭互動經驗、出養家庭提供支持,以及獲得專業機構支持三項,顯示專業機構與出養家庭對開放的正面態度有助於促使收出養雙方順利見面,且專業機構在收出養流程及後續追蹤期間,持續提供專業建議及諮詢,並擔任收出養聯繫的中介角色,有助於維持開放的穩定。
    五、開放收養家庭的需求主要可分為四項:「機構提供輔助性支援」、「同質性養父母支持團體」、「被收養童專業處遇」、「養父母成長課程」。
    六、透過機構收養的家庭普遍滿意機構的安排,對於機構提供之收養準備課程、開放聯繫協助、專業諮詢與建議表示肯定,認為機構支持有助於增加開放收養的意願與安全感。
    關鍵字:開放收養、兒童福利服務、收養服務
    This research intends to investigate the open adoption experience in Taiwan through qualitative research method and in-depth interviews. In addition, we analyze the interaction and feelings between the biological and adoptive families, classify the factors behind successful open adoption cases as well as organize the needs of open adoption families. This research is conducted in cooperation with the Adoption Service Section of the Child Welfare League Foundation and invited those who conform to the definition of “open adoption family” to participate in the research. We provide some suggestions based on the research result for future adoptive families and those who engage in adoption services and practices.
    According to the research purpose, we invited eight open adoption families from Northern Taiwan to participate in this research and achieved the following results:
    1. The “open adoption” method produces positive effects for both the birth family and the adoptive family. It helps create a positive and interactive experience between both families, increase the empathy of the adopting parents with the biological parents, and hence ease the worries about adoption for the birth family. Meanwhile, the adoptee would understand that they are not abandoned and thus develop a positive memory about their relationship with their biological parents.
    2. The adoptive family accepts the open adoption method for the following five motives: let the adoptee know they are loved, show empathy with the birth family, regard this as deserved for the child, believe it is needed by the child, and hope to understand more about the child.
    3. Regarding the open adoption experience, the adoptive family show high level of acceptance, tolerance, empathy and understanding, recognizing the benefit and result of open adoption method.
    4. The success of the open adoption practice can be determined by the following two categories of factors. First, the “internal motivation” factors: adoptive parents support the open adoption method, respect the wish of the adoptee, agree that children are not private properties, empathize with the birth family’s sorrow, expect to ease the worry of the biological parents, have a good impression about the birth family, communicate well between each other, prioritize the best interest of the child, and respect the birth family. With these internal motivation factors, the success of open adoption can be achieved. Second, the “external reinforcement” factors: having positive family interaction experiences, gaining support from both the birth family and the adoption agency. These external reinforcement factors show that the supportive attitude of both the adoption agency and the birth family makes possible a meeting between the birth family and the adoptive one. Moreover, the stabilization of open adoption can be reached, if, during the adoption processes and the follow-up period, the adoption agency can continuously provide professional suggestions and consultation as well as be a bridge between both families.
    5. The open adoption family generally requires the following supports: agency provided assistance, support group of similar adoptive families, professional intervention for the adoptee, adoptive parents training.
    6. Those who adopt children through adoption agencies are generally satisfied with the arrangement of the agency, and recognize the provided preparation lessons, assistance as well as professional consultations and suggestions. The adoptive families believe that the agency provided support helps increase the willingness and confidence to accept the open adoption method.
    Keywords: open adoption, children welfare service, adoption service
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    國立政治大學
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