|Abstract: ||近代中國在十九世紀末期以來，將身體，尤其是整個國族的身體，問題化（problematized）為「野蠻/病態」身體論述，從而激發出集體焦慮感和恥感，可以說是近代中國國族主義發展的一大特色。本研究計劃接續Norbert Elias、Dorothy Ko、 Frank Dikotter 等學者的研究成果，一方面歷史化（historicize）此種「野蠻/病態」身體的論述形成過程，探討在此過程中近代中國思想界如何接納、挪用、再現（incorporate, appropriate, represent）殖民主義的種族歧視論述，進而探究相關之野蠻／文明定義演變、和身體與傳染疾病的關係、人種意識和階級性別等社會意識在近代中國的發展。另一方面，則要重新定位評估「野蠻／病態」的身體論述，為何長期以來構成近代中國歷史書寫的重要環節，而其他類型的身體論述為何會被邊緣化（marginalized），並因此付出了知識和文化上的代價。在具體的研究課題上，本研究計劃預定深入研究以下兩項主要課題：（1）是近代中國有關於「吐痰」的論述和感受。在近代中國的國族論述中，吐痰行為被簡化為是全體中國人「野蠻／病態」身體的「原罪」之歷史現象。因此近代中國如何「複製再生、挪用」(reproduce and appropriate)西方的反吐痰論述，進而成為建構近代中國國族想像論述的特殊歷史過程，是一相當有趣且牽涉多項議題的研究課題。（2）是有關 1903 年日本大阪博覽會的「學術人類館事件」：二十世紀初，中國思想知識界，一方面自覺性展現出（如梁啟超）高度身體危機意識；另一方面，在面對同為黃種人的日本人，公開「陳列再現」「野蠻／病態」的中國人時，卻又表現出強烈集體受辱意識。由於此事件發生的時間點正是近代中國國族論述方興未艾之時，解析此事件的中國知識份子的反應，更可以看出「病態／野蠻」身體論述和近代中國國族意識的緊密複雜關係。|
Since the late 19th century the discourse of the body, especially the collective national body, which was problematized as 「barbarous and pathological,」and was therefore instrumental in provoking collective anxiety and humiliation, has figured prominently in the development of the modern Chinese nationalism. In light of the studies by Norbert Elias, Dorothy Ko, Frank Dikotter and other scholars, my project, on the one hand, aims to historicize such 「barbarous and pathological」body discourse in order to explore to what extent the modern Chinese thinkers have incorporated, appropriated and re-presented colonial racism in constructing the 「barbarous and pathological」body discourse, and to illuminate further the relevant issues such as the changing definitions of barbarity and civility, the relationship between the body and contagion, racial ideology and class/gender social consciousness in modern China. On the other hand, my study looks into why the 「barbarous and pathological」body discourse has occupied such an important position in the narrative of modern Chinese history, and how it has marginalized other types of the body discourse at what intellectual and cultural expense. In terms of more concrete topics to be explored in my project, I will examine two issues as follow: (1) The sensibility to and discourse on spitting in modern China: in the modern Chinese nationalist discourse, spitting has been frequently referred to and simplified as a vital sign of the 「original sin」representing the 「barbarous and pathological」Chinese body. Therefore, how the modern Chinese discourse constructed the image of collective national identity by means of reproducing and appropriating the anti-spitting discourse in the modernWest promises to be an interesting and significant issue remained to be investigated thoroughly. (2) The 「Incident of the Anthropological Hall」in the 1903 Osaka Exhibition: in the first decade of the 20th century, the Chinese intellectuals, on the one hand, self-consciously expressed strong sense of crisis about the national body, such as what Liang Ch』i-ch』ao had bitterly proclaimed; on the other hand, however, confronted by the 「barbarous and pathological」Chinese body image proposed by the Japanese, the Chinese intellectuals reacted vehemently to the Japanese proposal with strong emotion and deep sense of humiliation. Because of the key timing of this incident, when the modern Chinese national discourse was inchoate, a thoughtful analysis on the incident itself and related issues promises to enrich greatly our understating of the complicated relationship between the 「barbarous and pathological」body discourse and the formation of the modern Chinese national identity.