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    Title: 轉變中的日本利益團體政治---以日本醫師會為例
    Other Titles: Is Interest Group Politics in Japan in Transition? The Case of the Japan Medical Association
    Authors: 林超琦
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學政治學系
    Keywords: 政治學
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2011-11-14 16:53:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 日本自民黨自1955 年成立以來,除了1993-1994 年間曾短暫下野之外,一直都是日本的執政黨。一般同意,自民黨之所以能夠長期執政,與利益團體的支持有關。長期以來,參議院選舉全國選區,有許多議員是由特定利益團體所支持,印證了「自民黨透過利益團體有組織動員的優勢」的看法。但是,2007 年參議院選舉,多位由利益團體支持的候選人不幸落選。這只是一時的事件,或是意味著結構上自民黨的支持基礎有所改變?本研究計畫擬以參議院選舉為切入點,以日本醫師會為個案,去探討利益團體組織動員的情形及利益團體與自民黨關係近年可能的改變,以期望能對日本政治未來的發展有更清楚的掌握。
    It is widely agreed that the long-term electoral success of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has in the past been closely related to organized votes. The party delivered pork to the supportive constituencies and attracted loyal votes in return. Those groups tended to vote for the LDP, eventually becoming loyal LDP supporters and mobilizing group members behind particular LDP candidates. The most typical case was that related to members elected to the upper house based on proportional representation (PR). Since the elections for upper house PR members are held in the national districts, elected candidates are usually representatives of nationally organized interest groups. It almost became a norm that candidates with the support of large interest groups would win. However, last year (2007), the LDP suffered a stunning defeat in the upper house election. In the national districts, the LDP only received 28.8 percent of votes, in contrast to 39.48 percent for the major opposition party, the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ). Even the candidates endorsed by major pro-LDP groups did not win. What happened? Where have the loyal LDP supporters gone? Is this one-time event or an ongoing changing relationship between the LDP and its support groups? If it is an on-going trend, what are the implications for Japanese politics in the future? To gain a better understanding of the relationship between the LDP and its support groups, a systemic analysis of how and why the organized votes have declined is needed. Derived from theories on interest group politics, I will consider the following explanations for the decline in organized votes. 1) The declining organized votes result from the demographic change. Interest groups still support the LDP but their membership decreases and are not able to mobilize as many votes as they had done. 2) The loyal LDP votes decline because supporting the LDP did not help them to get their preferred policy and they decided not to support the LDP. 3) The loyal LDP voters did not continue to vote for the LDP because other parties, say the major opposition party –DPJ, promise to offer better benefits and then LDP supporters switched to support the DPJ. 4) The decline in organized votes is associated with the rise of unaffiliated voters
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9802~ 9901
    研究經費:357仟元
    Source URI: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1493834&plan_no=NSC98-2410-H004-002&plan_year=98&projkey=PF9803-0052&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E8%BD%89%E8%AE%8A%E4%B8%AD%E7%9A%84%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E5%88%A9%E7%9B%8A%E5%9C%98%E9%AB%94%E6%94%BF%E6%B2%BB---%E4%BB%A5%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E9%86%AB%E5%B8%AB%E6%9C%83%E7%82%BA%E4%BE%8B
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 國科會研究計畫

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