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    Title: 佛道脈絡中的驅邪法式:穢跡金剛法與靈官馬元帥秘法中的驅邪法式研究
    Other Titles: Exorcism in Buddho-Daoist Context--- A Study of Exorcism in the Method of Ucchusma and Luminous Agent Marshal Ma
    Authors: 謝世維
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學宗教研究所
    Keywords: 驅邪;穢跡金剛;靈官馬元帥;佛道交涉;道教;密教;道法會元;法師
    Apotropaic rituals;Ucchu?a;Luminous Agent Marshal Ma;Buddho-Daoism;Daoism;Tantra;Daofa huiyuan;Ritual Master
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2011-11-15 09:15:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究從驅邪法式的角度比較穢跡金剛法與靈官馬元帥秘法之異同與其間之關係。本文首先論述穢跡金剛法,其中以《大威力烏樞瑟摩明王經》、《穢跡金剛說神通大滿陀羅尼法術靈要門》、《穢跡金剛禁百變法經》等穢跡金剛法相關文獻分析穢跡金剛的形象與法術特徵。另外也分析靈官馬元帥秘法,以《道法會元》卷220至卷231中的靈官馬元帥相關形象與法術為分析對象,其中重點放在《道法會元》卷224與225當中靈官馬元帥秘法中的驅邪法式。穢跡金剛法與靈官馬元帥秘法之形象與咒語上的共同性。宋代時期的靈官馬元帥形象並不固定,而某些早期的靈官馬元帥三頭九目六臂的形象則援用自穢跡金剛的形象,其中某些靈官馬元帥的咒語也直接取自穢跡金剛咒。這可以看出密法與道法兩者之間有借用關係。本文同時分析靈官馬元帥秘法之中的童子驅邪法式,以〈附體秘要〉與〈附生童法〉為核心,進而分析靈官馬元帥秘法中驅邪法式的程序模式與其特色。這種靈官馬元帥秘法之中透過童子而施行的驅邪法式與印度所傳來的阿尾奢(āveśa)法有關,阿尾奢法是以童子為媒介,用以問事、醫病、驅邪。這種法術唐代以後逐漸轉向民間發展,與道士、民間的法術儀式專家結合,這些驅邪法式不僅呈現在經典之中,實際上在宋代也在民間被民間的道士、密法僧與法師所實踐,這些可以從《夷堅志》的敘述中略見梗概。而靈官馬元帥秘法也有繁複而細緻的童子驅邪法式,從中可以看出這種法術在道教與密教之間的使用。從本文的分析中可以發現於宋代時期佛教與道教有許多法術的交流、借用與轉化,並形成道教豐富而多元的法術文化。
    This research compares and contrasts the apotropaic rituals of the Ucchusma and Luminous Agent Marshal Ma, and analyses the relationship between them. This paper first discusses Ucchusma and analyses its images and ritual methods in the light of related texts. Additionally, this paper analyses “the esoteric rites of the Numinous Official Martial Ma”, taking as its subject the images and ritual magic from juan 220 to 231 of the Daofa huiyuan, paying particular attention to the apotropaic methods of j. 224 and 225 and the commonalities in images and incantations between the Ucchusma and Luminous Agent Marshal Ma. The author finds that Song Dynasty images of Luminous Agent Marshal Ma are not stabilized, and that certain early images, with three heads, nine eyes and six arms, are derivative from those of Ucchusma, in addition to various incantations which show similar derivation. This demonstrates the close syncretic relationship between Tantric and Daoist ritual, a phenomenon which also occurs in the Marshal Tianyou. After the Ming dynasty, images of Marshal Ma became gradually more standardized, in particular the form with three eyes and two arms, one which is closely related to those of Wuxian and Huaguang Bodhisattva. This paper also focuses on tantric possession and child-possession to identify the role of young boys in apotropaic rituals of exorcism, and proceeds from this to analyse the overall structure of the ritual. This method for using young boys in apotropaic rites bears a strong relationship to the āveśa rites transmitted from India, which also use boys as mediums to perform divination and exorcism. From the Tang dynasty onwards, this kind of ritual gradually spread in common religion, by both Daoist priests and specialists of common religious magical rites. The author understands that these kinds of exorcistic ritual did not only appear in scriptures, but were practiced in folk religious contexts by Daoist priests, Tantric monks and ritual master, as can be seen in rough descriptions of such in the Yijianzhi. According to records in the Yijianzhi, avesa rites and Ucchusma were both practiced in sects of Daoist magic and ritual masters. The Esoteric Method/Rites of Marshal Ma also contains complex and detailed exorcisms using children, from which its uses in Daoism and Tantrism can be seen. From the analysis in this paper, it can be demonstrated that there was a great deal of interchange, borrowing and transformation between Song dynasty Daoism and Buddhism, generating a rich and multi-valent ritual culture.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:2010/08/01~2011/07/31
    研究經費:465仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[宗教研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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