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    Title: 共有自耕保留地交換移轉登記問題之研究
    Other Titles: The Title Problem of Common Ownership Land Because of the Implementation of Land-To-Tiller Program since the 1950s
    Authors: 徐世榮
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學地政學系
    Keywords: 耕者有其田;土地改革;共有自耕保留地;共有分管;共有出租耕地
    Land-to-Tiller Program;Land Reform;Common Ownership Land;Condemnation;Cadastral System
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-01-02 10:01:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 共有自耕保留地交換移轉登記問題之研究耕者有其田政策自民國四十二年實施至今已將近一甲子,但政策實施重要的行政工作,卻尚未能稱正式完成。當時政府以政策手段重新分配土地所有權,將出租耕地徵收放領給現耕佃農,然而對於共有土地實際存在之分管情形,並未詳加體察及研擬對策,導致許多一部分自耕、一部分出租之共有分管土地,在出租部分徵收放領後,自耕保留部分仍登記為全體共有之情形。行政機關及司法機關對此項共有自耕保留地問題,抱持著極為不同的看法。行政機關認為此項問題乃政府施政之疏失,先後以多項行政命令及函示,規定登記機關應逕行辦理「自耕保留部分交換移轉登記」,將出租共有人之持分移轉予自耕之共有人,若共有人提出異議,應循司法途徑由法院審理。司法機關則認為法律並未授權行政機關逕為辦理此項登記,且土地分管契約並不具分割之效力,因此徵收乃是向全體共有人為之,自耕保留部分亦是全體共有,若特定共有人領取徵收補償費,則應放棄其應有部分之所有權,然此項權利義務關係,僅是共有人內部間得互相請求之債權關係,政府不應以公權力積極介入。由於長久以來皆無法律明確規定共有自耕保留地問題之處理方式,行政命令之效力又不被司法機關所承認,上述行政及司法之矛盾便不斷發生。行政機關無法調處之異議案件,由司法機關審理,司法機關又以此乃共有人內部間之債權債務關係,不得由法院逕以判決確定產權之歸屬。雙方皆無權處理的結果,使問題落入了難解的圈套。目前各地方政府雖訂定自治條例逐一進行清查,但除了因原始資料破損或錯誤,導致出租共有人判斷困難、清查工作進行緩慢外,當共有人提出異議而循司法途徑處理,法院往往是依原登記簿之內容判決自耕保留地仍為全體共有。因此目前在清查實務上,登記機關不再以辦理持分移轉交換為原則,大抵是一律按原登記簿內容公告通知,再分別調處異議。目前之清查方式,看似能有效解決共有自耕保留地問題,但實際上卻是相當不負責任之作法。行政機關於徵收放領時應辦而未辦之案件,在數十年後轉由共有人自行承擔,徒增累訟成本,政策之轉向令人無所適從。耕者有其田政策之意旨本在扶植自耕農,使「耕者」能「有其田」,卻因執行上的疏失,使這些原本應受到保護、扶植的自耕農,其土地所有權受到侵害。如此不僅違背了土地改革的主要意旨,亦衍生出眾多土地問題。為了保障財產權並促進土地利用,此類問題不得不積極地來加以解決,當初實施政策的政府更是責無旁貸。目前行政機關及司法機關處理相關案件,往往難以兼顧合法性及自耕共有人財產權之保障,究其原因,除了書件檔案之缺損及輔助證據隨時間消逝而嚴重不足外,各界對這一段歷史缺乏了解,亦是問題難以解決的主要原因之一。本研究之主要目的,即是希望深入了解問題之成因、行政機關、司法機關處理時之法律依據及實務上處理情形,並為歷史作一紀錄,希望藉此為共有耕地持分交換問題尋求解套的方式。
    The Title Problem of Common Ownership Land Because of the Implementation of Land-to-Tiller Program at the 1953 Although the Land-to-Tiller Program was implemented in 1953 it still leaves some important works unfinished till today. Most of those private land condemned by the state did have several owners, which means they were under the situation of common ownership. A piece of common ownership land could be privately separated into several parts and each controlled by different owners. Those parts leased out for renters were condemned by the state, and the state did pay a small amount of compensation for those owners at that time. Some other owners who cultivated their parts within the same title could keep their lands. However, names of those owners whose lands were condemned were not taken out from the land title record books. Therefore, those lands, which were not taken by the state, were still kept as common ownership now. Many disputes emerge among owners since 1950s. The state does not solve this problem, and it restricts title transfer of those lands. How to solve the problem? The administrative organization does have very different opinions from the judicial organization. The former maintains that it has the right to transfer title of common ownership land from leasers to self-cultivated owners. However, the latter does not agree with this argument. It indicates that the administrative organization does not have right to do it, and it says that the condemned owners still have right for the land. Therefore, whenever there were disputed cases sent to the court, which always sentenced that the solution of this problem should be decided by landowners themselves, and the government did not have right for intervention. It does mean the problem must be left for landowners themselves to resolve. However, this is a very irresponsible way since the government at 1953 created the problem. This research will revisit the history of the Land-to-Tiller Program implemented in 1953 and reveal the origin of the problem. This research will also collect and analyze important opinions from the administrative and the judicial organizations since 1950s. The sentences from courts are also important materials for the study. In addition, the research will choose some cases for detailed case study. Interviews with common ownership landowners, administrative officers, and local respected old persons who know the history are all necessary works. Finally, this research will try to submit some suggestions for the resolution of the problem
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:819仟元
    Source URI: http://grbsearch.stpi.narl.org.tw/GRB/result.jsp?id=1715591&plan_no=NSC99-2410-H004-182&plan_year=99&projkey=PF9907-7287&target=plan&highStr=*&check=0&pnchDesc=%E5%85%B1%E6%9C%89%E8%87%AA%E8%80%95%E4%BF%9D%E7%95%99%E5%9C%B0%E4%BA%A4%E6%8F%9B%E7%A7%BB%E8%BD%89%E7%99%BB%E8%A8%98%E5%95%8F%E9%A1%8C%E4%B9%8B%E7%A0%94%E7%A9%B6
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[地政學系] 國科會研究計畫

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