近代中國西北穆斯林社會經堂教育的發展與變遷經堂教育為近代中國穆斯林社會裡，在清真寺中附設傳習伊斯蘭教經典知識、培育專業宗教人才類似於學校的教育制度。此一制度最早為明朝中葉陜西人胡登洲在關中地區開始創建，同時將其規範化、系統化，並使之成為穆斯林民間宗教人士專業知識承襲與實際運用的培訓制度，其後才逐漸擴展到中原、西北、東南沿海與雲南等地區。自明朝中葉到清末大約四百年的歷史中，經堂教育的發展在中國穆斯林的社會裡日漸成熟定型，並且成為中國伊斯蘭宗教文化與相關知識體系得以發展傳承的主要載體。直到今日，在中國回族等穆斯林社群中，經堂教育在各地仍保有不同呈現方式的多元發展型態，其對於穆斯林宗教文化意識與信仰體系的型塑，發揮著評價不一的各種功能。本計畫即是以教派多元化為主要特色的西北地區的經堂教育為研究對象。本計畫以歷史學、民族學及宗教學的角度來研究經堂教育在西北地區萌芽、發展與變遷的歷史及其當代觀察，並藉此顯示近代西北穆斯林社會發展史中，回民宗教知識傳承與文化自覺在這方面的特色與重要性，則是本計畫最主要研究目的。另一方面，申請人亦想經由本計畫，來釐清經堂教育在中國四百多年來的重要發展脈絡，以做為繼續深化研究中國回族史與中國伊斯蘭教史等專業領域的基礎。本計畫的研究方法則以歷史學與民族學（人類學）為主。在歷史學方面，其方法取向偏重於族群史、社會文化史與宗教史等分支學科的觀點。而民族學（人類學）的方法取向則以田野調查為主。依據文獻材料與田野民族志資料，整理出自明末至當代西北經堂教育發展的基本脈絡，並且透過族群史、社會文化史與宗教史的分析架構，對於經堂教育的基本實施內容、教派門宦背景差異及其展現、當代變遷過程與影響等部份，提出系統性的研究結論。 The Modern Development and Change of Educational System in the Mosque of Muslim Society in Northwest China The educational system in the mosque that is a kind of educational institution for learning the knowledge of Islamic scriptures and training professional religion clergies in modern China's Muslim society. This institution was created in Guanzhong area by Hu Dengzhou who born in Shaangxi in the middle period of Ming Dynasty. Hu tried to normalize and systematize this specific institution and let it to form a procedure which had the functions including inheritance of religious knowledge and practical utilization for the clergies. After Hu the educational system in the mosque that spread soon to the other Muslim communities in the areas of Yellow River Plain, Southeast Coast, Northwest area and Yunnan Province. In nearly four hundred years from the middle Ming to late Q'ing, the development of the educational system in the mosque began to represent an actual tendency of stability and also to play an important role in the inheriting process of knowledge for China's Islamic culture. Even in contemporary China, the educational system in the mosque still keeps its plural forms of diversification and displays various functions in the field of shaping religious-cultural consciousness of Muslim society. The main target of this project is tried to concentrate the educational system in the mosque of Northwest China in which Islamic sectarianism is the most representative cultural trait in local Muslim communities. This project is going to try to use the viewpoints of historiography, ethnology and the science of religion to research the history of the educational system in the mosque. It includes its origin, developing and changing process and modern adaptation. The main goal of this project also try to realize the important meaning and interaction between this unique institution with the intellectual inheritance and self-consciousness in Hui Muslims. In the other hand, this project also could provide a different and profound view to observe the influence of the educational system in the mosque, and to let it to be the basic point for further research in the fields of history of Hui Muslims and Islam in China. The research method of this project is concentrated in the fields of historiography and ethnology (anthropology). In historiography, its research approach is based on the concepts of ethnic history, socio-cultural history and religious history. And in ethnology, its research approach then reflects on the studies of field work. According to literary materials and the observation of ethnography, this project should represent a complete developing process of the educational system in the mosque from Ming Dynasty to contemporary China. And by way of the analysis framework of ethnic history, socio-cultural history and religious history, this project also want to get some meaningful and systematical conclusions about the content of practical work, the different aspects in sectarianism and the influence of modern transformation in educational system in the mosque of China's Muslim society.