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    Title: 轉型經濟下的中國城市住房改革─以上海為例
    Other Titles: Urban Housing Reform in China's Transition Economy--- A Case of Shanghai
    Authors: 魏玫娟
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學國家發展研究所
    Keywords: 城市住房改革;福利住房;住房商品化;轉型經濟;社會主義發展型國家
    urban housing reform;welfare housing;commodification of housing;transition economy;socialist developmental state
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-03-20 09:47:15 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國自1979 年改革開放以來所進行的城市住房改革,主要的目的在於改善城市治理。 在中國社會主義意識型態下,由國家提供公共住房是社會主義福利制度的重要內容,「提 供住房」也因此被認為是社會主義國家的責任。關於中國城市發展與城市住房政策的研究多數著重在探究與強調「發展」的正面影響,將住房改革視為帶動中國城市經濟繁榮 發展的「成長機器」,並進一步認為中國城市住房市場化的持續發展有助於維持社會秩 序與政治穩定。既有文獻中較少關注中國經濟與城市發展所帶來的負面影響、忽略住房 政策所具有的社會保障功能,這些負面影響主要是住房商品化與市場化之後出現的「住 房陷阱」所導致的以都市貧窮問題為主的社會不平等,特別是房改對中低收入戶的影 響。本研究旨在以上海住房改革政策為個案,從制度演變/制度分析的角度,透過對上海 的個案研究以及上海與中國其他大城市(如北京)住房改革個案的比較研究來嘗試回答 以下問題:到底中國自改革開放以來的城市住房改革是如何受到「單位」與「戶口」制 度路徑依賴的影響?到底是什麼原因使中國改革開放以來旨在改善城市治理、解決住房 問題的城市住房改革失敗,甚而進一步導致社會不平等的出現與深化?是「市場」的限 制與失靈還是轉型經濟中城市發展的必然後果?面對住房改革所導致的房價高漲以致 城市一般居民無力自購住房的情況,中國政府是否調整或改變其以市場化為導向的城市 住房政策原則而再次強調過去社會主義制度下國家在提供(福利)住房上所應擔負的責任?更進一步,本研究試圖以上海個案研究與上海跟其他中國大城市比較研究的資料為 基礎,本研究嘗試進一步比較中國城市住房政策與其他國家(主要是東亞資本主義國家 跟東歐前共產主義國家)的比較,從制度轉型的角度來探索,中國在社會主義市場經濟 原則下強調「自主創新」的制度轉型是否可能在理論上建立一個「社會主義發展型國家」 的模式。
    It has been about two decades since China set its urban housing reform in motion towards the ‘commercialisation’ or ‘commodification’ of housing with a view to improving its urban governance. Under the socialist ideology, public housing provision is an important element of socialist welfare system. It is regarded as the main responsibility of state to provide housing, primarily for the employees of the state-owned and collective enterprises. Most attention of the scholars and policy-makers is focused on the success of China’s urban housing reform in driving economic growth—its apparent effects on housing production and the improvement of the living condition within big cities, claiming the contribution of rapid economic growth to socio-political stability. The downside of the commercialization-orientated reform of urban housing—mainly the problems of inequitable distribution of housing and urban poverty—and its impact on socio-political development have been inadequately overlooked and under-researched. This research adopts the approach of institutional analysis and uses Shanghai’s housing reform as a case, aimed to answer the following questions: How have the ‘work units’ and ‘household registration’ systems influenced housing reform in urban China? What are the institutional factors that have made the urban housing reform in China not only fail to fulfill the goal of improving urban governance but also contribute to the emergence of social inequalities? Is it because of the ‘market failure’ or the inevitable consequences of transition economy? Faced with the problems resulted from the marketisation of housing, would China ‘re-orient’ its reform from economic growth to social justice in order to build a ‘harmonious society’ and how would China do? Furthermore, this research is attempted to compare Shanghai and other big cities of China, China’s development experience and that of East Asian capitalist countries and former East European communist countries. Through the aforementioned comparative studies, this research is attempted to explore the possibility of developing a model of socialist developmental state.
    Relation: 研究期間: 9908~ 10007
    研究經費: 435 仟元
    行政院國家科學委員會
    計畫編號NSC99-2410-H004-077-MY2
    Source URI: https://nscnt12.nsc.gov.tw/was2/award/AsAwardMultiQuery.aspx
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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