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    Title: 從「勞動模範」到「民意代表」?中國大陸地方人大代表的角色變遷 (I)
    Other Titles: From'Model Laborers' to 'Representatives' ? Changing Role of Deputies of the People's Congress in China
    Authors: 趙建民
    Contributors: 行政院國家科學委員會
    國立政治大學國家發展研究所
    Keywords: local people’s congress;transformation of roles of people’s representatives;political trust;state-society relations;地方人大代表的角色變化;人大功能;政治信任感;地方政權改革
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2012-03-20 09:47:26 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 改革開放前的人民代表大會往往被視為「橡皮圖章」,人大代表則多為「勞動模 範」。近年來中國大陸的信訪人數不斷增加,2003 年有所謂的「信訪洪峰」,農民 對郷鎮地方政權的信任感佷低,國家(包括黨與政府)與社會的矛盾很大,亟需尋找 新的制度性解決問體的渠道,而人大似乎是可以掌握的制度化渠道。 不少老百姓認為,作為國家的權力機關,人大已成為具有權威和效率的申訴與 維權途徑。在2007 年舉行的縣鄊兩級人大換屆選舉中,有大約500 名的「獨立候選 人」參選,反應了人大代表角色已出 現了些微的變化,逐漸成為解決基層問體的 管道之ㄧ。 本研究針對中國大陸地方人大代表的角色變遷進行分析,目的在於了解農村廢 除稅費後,而城鄉抗議事件不斷上升的情況下,地方人大代表的功能是否有所增加。 本研究擬根據有關代議士角色的理論,針對中國大陸地方人大的角色與功能進行分 析,並嘗試將相關的案例予以「類型化」。 目前學界對中國大陸人民代表大會制度的研究並不多,既有研究多集中於人大 制度的功能和制度方面,如立法功能的發展與轉變(如法規審批權、聽證、立法解釋、 監督權的強化等)、立法體系的完備與各種立法的制定等。本研究則試圖自地方人大 的角色與功能,整合不同類型的案例,較全面的分析中國大陸地方人大代表的角色 轉變。 China’s People’s Congress, previously regarded as “rubber stamp”, has quietly been transformed into one of the most important channels for resolving the conflicts stemming from increasing discrepancy between local party-state system and the society. “Take complaints to the higher echelon of the government hierarchy” has been on the rise in recent years. Actually, 2003 is described as the “pinnacle of visits” to the higher government by the Chinese. The trust from the Chinese peasants to their local governments is not very high. There is a need for a new channel to articulate peasants’ demands. Quite a few Chinese nowadays treat the People’s Congress as an authoritative institution for the maintenance of their rights. In the elections to choose deputies for the Xian and Xiang People’s Congress in 2007, there were over 500 independent candidates participating, testifying to the growing importance of the institution. The study intends to analyze the changing role of deputies to China’s People’s Congress amid growing tensions between local states and the society. This is especially meaningful when the taxes and fees previously levied upon the peasants have been abolished, ushering a new era in China’s local political landscape. Based on relevant studies on the role of legislators this study will try to put local deputies of China’s People’s Congress into different typologies. Research on China’s People’s Congress has been less than prolific. Most research focus on the functions and institution-building of the legislative organs. Development and change of legislative functions such as sanctioning powers over law-making, legislative interpretation, strengthening of the oversight powers, and the enactment of different kinds of laws, etc, are often apt issues of concern. This study concentrates on the changing role of the representatives of the People’s Congress in order to get a better understanding on the legislative organs as an institution.
    Relation: 研究期間: 9708~ 9807
    研究經費: 510 仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 國科會研究計畫

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