|Abstract: ||過去一些年來，處理貧窮與社會排除一直是歐盟和英國的政策目標。而這樣的目標多環繞在兒童、年輕家庭和被勞動市場所排斥的工作年齡的人口群。多數老年人因為已經達到退休年齡，不再參與勞動市場，在社會排除的探討上比較不被注意。雖然相對於其他年輕受壓迫的人口群社會排除之被重視，老人的社會排除還是有許多可以探討的空間。特別是為什麼某些群體老人比起其他老人有更大程度的被排除。社會排除是一個多面向現象，它同時具有動態性、累積性以及空間性。包括：社會關係的排除、文化活動的排除、公民活動的排除、基本服務使用、鄰里情誼（neighborhood）的排除、財務產品（financial products）的排除、物質商品（material goods）的排除。本研究將整合成四個面向探討社會排除的現象：分別是貧窮或足夠收入或資源的排除、勞動市場的排除、服務的排除以及社會關係的排除。不同的人群，由於各種不同的原因影響其接近所需要的資源。瞭解這些被排除的原因在研究上有其重要的意義。本研究將著重在高齡化社會中弱勢老人不同群體社會排除的瞭解與探討。除了原因性的探討外，並希望能提出政策和實務上的策略。本研究分三年針對機構照顧的老人、社區內照顧的失能老人以及獨居的老人以問卷調查的方式，抽樣訪談認知功能良好又能言語的老人。第一年的機構老人，將從大、小型機構中分別抽取，總計280 人。第二年的社區失能老人，採用多重階段群集抽樣，分一般社區失能老人、老人中心個管失能老人以及一般社區老人三群。總共預定訪問300 位老人。第三年的獨居老人，預計從各老人服務中心列管的獨居老人（高風險）抽取並將在各區立意抽取一般性獨居老人作為比較。總計240 人。將設計結構式問卷作為訪談工具，問卷將包括：文獻上的可能社會排除原因、社會排除的面向等。預估統計分析方法：將使用SPSS統計軟體（12th edition）。因素分析、描述性統計、雙變項分析、多元迴歸分析。|
Over the past two decades, tackling the poverty problem and social exclusion has become the major policy initiatives of the UK and EU. However, the emphasis was on children and young families and those of working age excluded from the labor market. Because most elderly have retired from the labor market, less attention was paid to the plight of these people at the latter stages of the life course. In compared with the deprived situation of younger people or families, the social exclusion of the elderly has had much space to be studied. In particular, the extent to which some older people are more vulnerable to exclusion than others needs to be explored. Social exclusion is a multi-dimensional concept. It is also dynamic in process, accumulative among dimensions, and is spatial concern. The multi-dimensional aspects include: excluded on social relationships, excluded on cultural activities, excluded on civic activities, neighborhood exclusion, excluded on basic services, excluded on financial products, and excluded on material goods. In this research, four dimensions are concerned: income poverty and lack of perceived necessities, labor market exclusion, service exclusion, and exclusion from social relations. Because different groups of older people have different influential factors on the access to resources, exploring these factors among different groups has its research significance. The study will be focused on social exclusion of different vulnerable groups of the elderly. The first year research will be focused on older people who receive institutional care. Cluster sampling will be employed. The sample size will be 280. The second year research will be focused on disabled older people who live in the community. Cluster sampling will also be employed. Due to the comparing purpose, some general older people without disabled functioning will be surveyed too. The total sampling size will be 300. The third year research will be focused on high-risk (based on definition of Taipei city government) older people who live alone. Due to the comparing purpose, other older people who live alone will be selected and interviewed too. The total sample will be 240. Structural questionnaire includes indicators of social exclusion and factors affecting them. Factor analyses, descriptive statistics, bi-variate analyses and multi-regression will be utilized to examine the extent of the plight.