於今（2010）年12 月初，數個國內外的動物保護團體，要求我國政府應公告禁止海豹、海狗產製品輸入，主要原因在於加拿大捕獵海豹的方式受到許多動物保護團體的譴責，且許多國家均已經明文禁止海豹產品的進口；惟據報載，我國貿局官員表示，對於修法禁止進口可能會讓加拿大認定是貿易障礙，違反了WTO 的規定。確實，考慮到海豹於被捕殺的過程當中造成許多不必要的痛苦，歐盟於2009 年9 月16 日通過第1007 號海豹產品進口法令，原則上禁止海豹產品於歐盟市面上流通（包括進口），該法令一通過後，加拿大與挪威立即分別於11 月4 日以及10 日，於WTO 下提起爭端解決程序，要求與歐盟進行諮商。由此可看出，針對動物福利之管制措施，除了考慮到動物福祉等議題外，該等措施若可能影響到貿易活動時，於各國立法時，勢必要同時考量此類措施與WTO 下之國際經貿法規範間的關係，故引發本研究者對此一研究主題之動機。動物福利之擁護者一般認為WTO 之全球自由貿易協定，在動物福利上的議題沒有任何的進展，甚至表示正因為顧慮可能受到其他國家於此類協定下的法律挑戰，因此導致國內相關之動物福利立法工作推動不利。但歐盟近年來相當積極的推動動物福利之立法，甚至努力將此一議題列入WTO 之架構下，也嘗試透過區域貿易協定推動此一議題。惟目前於國際間，並未有針對動物福利所締結之國際條約，故動物福利的立法或管制措施還是由各國依據其國內之不同狀況加以訂定，依此，管制措施的類型相當多樣化，並非所有與動物福利相關的立法或管制措施都會觸及WTO 下之經貿法的議題，因此，本計畫將以各個管制措施類型，討論不同類型之動物福利措施與國際經貿法下之規範間的關係，包括法規適用性以及適法性之分析。 In early December 2010, several animal welfare groups have called for Taiwan’s government to ban the importation of seal products for the inhumane process of killing seals. However, it was reported that a trade official has expressed the concern of possible WTO suit brought by Canada against such ban. Indeed, such a law suit has already been brought up against European Union by Canada and Norway in November 2009. The EU enacted the regulation on trade in seal product in September 2009, which prohibits placing on the market of seal products, except those that are specifically permitted in the regulation. Canada and Norway both requested for consultation with the EU concerning the compatibility of this regulations with several GATT/WTO provisions. All these have demonstrated the increasing controversies over animal welfare measures and their relationship with the WTO. The EU has been actively promoting animal welfare issues including enacting various domestic legislation as well we pushing for such issues to be included in the WTO and FTA frameworks. As there is yet to be a specialised international regime on animal welfare, each country has to rely on domestic measures that are adopted according to different circumstances. As a result, there is a diversity of regulatory measures on animal welfare. Not all the regulatory measures on animal welfare touch upon trade issues. This research will attempt to comprehensively collect different types of animal welfare measures, and conduct detailed analysis on the applicability of and compatibility with several relevant WTO covered agreements, including GATT1994, SPS Agreement, TBT Agreement, and Agreement on Agriculture on each type of measures.