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    Title: 戰後台灣精英的連續與斷裂:以農會精英為例(1945-1953)
    Transition of Elites in Post-War Taiwan: A Case Study of Farmers' Associations from 1945 to 1953
    Authors: 黃仁姿
    薛化元
    Huang, Jen-Tzu
    Hsueh, Hua-Yuan
    Contributors: 政大歷史系
    Keywords: 精英流動;二二八事件;農會改組
    Transition of Elites;February 28 Incident;Farmers' Associations
    Date: 2011-11
    Issue Date: 2012-07-04 11:08:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 戰後國民政府接收臺灣,日治時期被聚集至農業會的地方精英,持續於接收初期擔任農會相關職務。1947年臺灣發生二二八事件,許多本土精英遭到逮捕及屠殺,或對新政權的疏離與冷漠,導致舊地方政治精英撤出政治領域,另外產生一批遞補空缺的新貴,因而造成臺灣本土政治精英的斷層現象。然而,二二八事件對農會領導階層的連續性衝擊,不像對地方政治精英那樣劇烈,農會領導階層在戰後初期仍多繼續出任相關職務。原本擔任地方公職的人,除延續其未滿任期外,更有進一步當選立法委員者,直到1950年地方自治選舉,仍可看到戰後初期的農會領導階層積極投入參選,延續其作為地方精英的地位。1949年陳誠繼任臺灣省主席,採納農復會的建議,決定合併農會與合作社。此後,延續自戰後初期的農會領導階層,比例僅餘三成,這是戰後第一次重大的斷裂。但是,如果把政治領域也列入計算,則縣市層級的農會領導人物仍在農會及政治領域活動者,約佔五成。1950年臺灣展開行政區域調整,農會領導階層的比例仍佔四成五,依舊維持一定程度的連續性。1952年行政院頒布「改進臺灣省各級農會暫行辦法」,農會於1953年展開第一波改選,舊有農會領導階層的比例在改造後僅剩二成。綜合目前精英流動性的研究,加上本文的分析,可以說明戰後臺灣整體的地方精英或社會精英,在國民政府接收後,歷經二二八事件的壓制,中華民國政府的敗退來臺,及國民黨當局強化其統治基盤的作為,而在不同的範疇,呈現並不完全一致的連續與斷裂現象。而農業精英與政治精英一樣,最後也出現斷裂的現象,但是農業精英的斷裂點出現時序較後;在某種程度上,也呈現了國民黨當局在不同範疇強化其控制力的時間點差異。
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the transition of local elites under change of regime in Taiwan. After World War Ⅱ, the Nationalist Government took over Taiwan from the Japanese colonizers and then established the Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office. The February 28 Incident of 1947 was triggered by the arrest of an illegal cigarette seller. Many Taiwan elites were injured, missing or even killed. According to previous researches, the February 28 Incident had a significant impact on the transition of political elites of Taiwan.With the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the U.S. 7th Fleet was sent to protect Taiwan and the Kuomintang regime was recognized as the only lawful representative of China. Thus, the Kuomintang regime concentrated on tightening the control of Taiwan society. One of its policies was to reorganize the Farmers' Associations because the agricultural sector played an important role in promoting Taiwan's economic development in the 1950s.Following the reorganization of the Farmers' Associations, new leaders were appointed, among which were many local elites well connected with the Kuomintang regime. With the collaboration of the local elites, the Kuomintang regime successfully strengthened its grip of Taiwan society.
    Relation: 臺灣史研究, 18(3), 93-140
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[臺灣史研究所 ] 期刊論文

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