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    Title: 保險人資訊義務之比較研究
    Other Titles: The Camparative Study on the Information Obligation of Insurer
    Authors: 葉啟洲;王正偉
    Contributors: 國立政治大學風險管理與保險學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 保險人;資訊義務
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-10-22 15:44:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 保險契約為具有高度專業性與複雜性之契約,且保險單條款又為保險人所預先擬定,要保人對於保險契約之內容的瞭解,即高度仰賴保險人所提供之資訊。各國法制關於要保人資訊權的保障,大多係透過保險監理法令要求保險人揭露有關保險商品的資訊為之,在性質上屬於行政監督法的性質,違反者,主管監督機關雖然得對保險人為適當的處罰,但對個別要保人的權益保障並無直接的提升效果。 晚近歐洲先進國家陸續在保險契約法的領域中,明確建立保險人在保險契約關係中負有提供適當資訊的義務,使得此一義務具有私法上義務的性質,如保險人違反之,要保人即得因此對保險人有所主張。例如德國於2006年全盤修正保險契約法時(自2008年1月1日生效),在該法第7條明訂保險人在要保人為要約之意思表示之前,應主動提供包含保險單條款在內的相關資訊予要保人,以便其判斷保險人所提供的商品是否符合其需求。此一義務,在德國法上稱為「保險人之資訊義務」(Informationspflichten des Versicherers),也有稱之為要保人之資訊權(Informationsrechte des Versicherungsnehmers)者。如果保險人違反上述資訊義務,則要保人依據德國保險契約法第8條所享有的意思表示撤回權(Widerrufsrecht)期間即不起算,要保人得隨時撤回其要保之意思表示。此外,要保人並得依據德國民法債編關於債務不履行的規定,請求保險人損害賠償。 我國現行保險法在契約法部分並無任何有關保險人資訊義務的規定,本研究計畫的目的,首先在於分析比較德、日、美等國保險相關法令中關於保險人資訊義務的規範,特別是資訊義務之性質、義務之範圍與義務違反之法律效果、與契約法上之其他義務之間的關係,並進而作為我國將來修正保險法時之參考,藉以提升保險消費者的權利保障。
    Due to the high degree of complexity and specialization of insurance contracts, and the fact that the policy provisions are pre-determined by insurers, the policyholders' comprehension of the content of the insurance contract highly relies on the information provided by the insurer.To protect the policyholders' right to information, most nations impose on the insurers such obligation to disclose relative information on insurance products under insurance supervision law. However, these regulations are, by its nature, administrative rules, and insurers who infringe upon these rules would only receive sanctions from competent authority; thus unable to further secure the rights and interests of individual policyholders.In recent years, advanced European nations have explicitly instigated the insurers' obligation to provide appropriate information in insurance contractual relationship; thus reincarnating it as an obligation under private law. Therefore, if the insurers contravene this obligation, the policyholders may file claim directly against the insurers. When Germany amended its Insurance Contract Law in 2006 in a full scale (effective Jan. 1, 2008), it has specified explicitly in Article 7 that, before the policyholder actually makes a representation of offer, the insurer should voluntarily provide relevant information to the policyholder, including the complete policy provisions, in order for the policyholders to evaluate whether the product in question meets their needs. This obligation is called the“Insurers'Information Obligation"(Informationspflichten des Versicherers), also known as the “Policyholders' Rights to Information" (Informationsrechte des Versicherungsnehmers). If the insurers breach this information obligation, the statutory limitation on the policyholder's right to withdraw its offer does not commence, and the policyholder may withdraw its representation of offer at any point of time. In addition, the policyholder may, in accordance with the German Civil Law regulation on the breaches of obligation in the Chapter of Obligations, the policyholders may claim compensation from the insurers as well. In our prevalent Insurance Law, the contract law section does not have any stipulation on Insurers' information obligation; therefore, this research proposes to compare and analyze different nations' regulations of this obligation, emphasizing on the nature, scope, and legal effects of this obligation, and its correlation and interaction with other statutory obligations under contract law, in order to present a reference for our future insurance law amendments and further enhance consumers protection in the insurance market.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:384仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[風險管理與保險學系 ] 國科會研究計畫

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