English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 86517/115222 (75%)
Visitors : 23145926      Online Users : 107
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 商學院 > 企業管理學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/54157
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/54157


    Title: 配適與績效關係之研究
    Three essays on the relationship between fit and performance
    Authors: 陳柏元
    Chen, Po Yuan
    Contributors: 于卓民
    譚丹琪

    Yu, Chwo Ming
    Tan, Dan Chi

    陳柏元
    Chen, Po Yuan
    Keywords: 權變觀點
    配適
    動態能力
    策略更新
    餘裕資源
    contingency theory
    fit
    dynamic capability
    strategic renewal
    organizational slack
    Date: 2011
    Issue Date: 2012-10-30 10:10:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文基於尋求解釋權變觀點長久以來存在的問題:『為何實證上配適對績效影響一直沒有一個一致性的定論(mixed empirical support)』,因為根據權變觀點的主張『組織效能決定於組織的特徵(例如:策略、組織結構)與組織所處的情境是否配適(fit),當兩者配適時則組織會產生較佳的績效』,所以企業追求配適,績效將愈高。由於配適概念具有績效意涵,因此配適在許多理論建構過程中,扮演重要的角色,例如:國際企業領域著名的折衷理論(Eclectic theory),所以當權變觀點的核心主張『配適有助於提升績效』在實證上不一定成立時,則會影響理論的建構與發展。

    為了解配適概念在實證上遇到的問題,本論文透過三個研究進行分析。在第一個研究,本論文針對權變觀點的文獻進行系統性的整理,並採用統合分析(meta-analysis)探討配適與績效的關係。研究結果顯示,配適對績效的效果量(effect size)為正,說明權變觀點的核心主張依舊成立,組織追求配適確實可以產生正向的績效。而影響實證結果不一致的原因則來自於配適的定義與衡量方法、衡量配適的變數個數、以及是否採用時間落差(time lag)三項干擾因子,呼應Venkatraman(1989)的主張。

    接下來,第二個研究本論文採用質性個案研究的方式,探討配適與績效的關係。研究過程中結合動態能力(Dynamic Capability)的概念,透過企業在不同成長階段的營運活動分析,觀察企業如何追求配適、如何調整與轉換既有的配適構型、以及追求配適對企業經營產生哪些影響。第一個研究發現與企業追求配適有關,企業追求配適的前提,必須先擁有有價值的核心優勢(例如:製造、產品開發),並以該核心優勢為中心,透過不同價值活動的緊密配合與組合,建立初期的配適構型(configuration)。第二個研究發現與配適的調整與轉換有關,發現為:(1)當企業成功創造初期的配適構型後,企業內部開始產生餘裕資源;(2)隨著企業價值活動的強化,前期的暫時性核心優勢會逐漸轉變為長期性的核心優勢;(3)透過創業家精神與策略更新,企業開始運用餘裕資源構築多核心優勢的配適構型。第三個研究發現與配適對企業經營之影響有關,發現如下:(1)企業建構配適構型時,當價值活動間關係愈緊密、複雜時,愈容易形成阻隔機制,競爭優勢愈能持久;(2)透過阻隔機制(isolating mechanisms)效果的發揮,以及時間壓縮的不經濟(time compression diseconomies)效果,可增加模仿的困難度並拉開與競爭對手之間的距離,創造績效。

    第三個研究則承接研究一與研究二的部分結論,透過實證重新驗證配適與績效的關係,同時對於文獻上餘裕資源效果的爭論提出解釋。研究結果發現:(1)當企業內部存在互補的企業專屬資源以及擁有豐富產業經驗的高階管理團隊,則運用餘裕資源創造配適的效率愈高;(2)藉由調整TMT管理團隊的組成方式可以有效避免管理者的代理問題,增加運用餘裕資源創造配適的效率;(3)當企業運用餘裕資源創造配適的效率愈高,則企業運用資產獲利的能力愈強,企業績效也愈高。

    總結來說,本論文從實證上配適與績效關係不一致的現象出發,對於實證結果不一致的原因提出說明,並且透過質性個案研究的方式,了解企業追求配適的過程及配適的效果,最後,藉由實證的方式,重新驗證配適與績效的關係,並且為企業如何有效運用餘裕資源提供具體的建議。
    This thesis aims to interpret the long existing question in contingency theory: mixed empirical support, i.e., no consistency can be found in the empirical relationship between fit and performance. This is intriguing, since according to contingency theory, organizational effectiveness is dependent on the fit between an organization’s characteristics (such as strategy and structure) and its existing circumstances, and with such a fit, the organization will have a better performance. Consequently, firms that pursue fit will achieve better performances. Since the concept of fit includes implications on performance, fit plays an important role in the development of many theories, e.g., the well-known eclectic theory. Hence, when contingency theory’s core proposition of fit is conducive to performance becomes fallible, overall theory construction and development will be affected.

    To further understand the fit issue, three studies are conducted in this thesis. For the first study, contingency theory literature was systematically studied and meta-analyzed with a special focus on the relationship between fit and performance. The findings show that fit has a positive effect size on performance which supports the core proposition of contingency theory in which organizational pursuit of fit does lead to positive performance. The reason for mixed empirical supports originates from three interference indicators of fit measurement methodology, number of variables, and whether the use of time lag. This finding echoes Venkatraman’s (1989) viewpoint.

    Next, a second study was conducted using qualitative approach to further explore the relationship between fit and performance. By integrating the concept of dynamic capability into the study, the researcher, by analyzing business operation activities in different stages of firm growth, observed how businesses pursued fit, how existing fit configurations were adjusted or changed, and what effects were created through the pursuit of fit in a firm. Three major study findings were identified. Firstly, in terms of how businesses pursue fit, a pre-requisite is that businesses must possess valuable core competences (e.g., manufacturing, R&D) and, by closely combining and coordinating different value activities to these core competences, initial fit configurations are built. Secondly, in terms of adjusting and changing fit, the findings include: (1) with the business’ initial successful fit configuration, slack is produced within the business; (2) as the business strengthens its value activities, previous temporary core competences will gradually transform into long-term core competences; and (3) through entrepreneurship and strategic renewal, the business will utilize its slack create a fit configuration of multiple core competences. Lastly, effects of fit on business management includes: (1) in the process constructing a business’ fit mechanisms, as the relationship between value activities become closer and more complex, isolating mechanisms are more easily formed, leading to more sustainable competitive advantages; and (2) by capitalizing on isolating mechanisms and time compression diseconomies, imitation become more difficult and the distance between competitors are widened, thereby creating performance.

    The third study adopted the findings of the previous two studies to empirically re-examine the relationship between fit and performance, while also proposing an explanation to the slack resource debate found in past literature. The research findings include: (1) when a business possesses complementary proprietary resources and highly experienced top management team (TMT), it enjoys a higher success rate of using slack resources to create fit exists; (2) agency costs can be reduced and increase in the efficiency of slack resource utilization to create fit can be achieved by adjusting the configuration of the TMT; and (3) with a higher rate of fit achievement through slack resource utilization comes stronger abilities to generate profits from business assets as well as a higher performance rate.

    In conclusion, this thesis started off by providing an explanation to the empirical inconsistency between fit and performance. Moving along, the researcher then used the qualitative case study research method to explore the process of businesses’ pursuit of fit and the effects of fit. Lastly, with an empirical study, the relationship between fit and performance is re-examined and specific suggestions are provided on effective business utilization of slack resources.
    Reference: 洪世章、譚丹琪、廖曉青,2007,「企業成長、策略選擇與策略改變」,中山管理評論,第十五卷第一期:11-35。
    Aldrich, H. E. (1979). Organizations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Agarwal, R., and Helfat, C. E. (2009). Strategic renewal of organizations. Organization Science, 20, 281-293.
    Augier, M., and Teece, D. J. (2009). Dynamic capabilities and the role of managers in business strategy and economic performance. Organization Science, 20, 410-421.
    Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99-120.
    Beer, M. Voelpel, S. C., Leibold, M., and Tekie, E. B. (2005). Strategic management as organizational learning: Development fit and alignment through a disciplined process. Long Range Planning, 38, 445-465.
    Birkinshaw, J. M., and Morrison, A. J. (1995). Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations. Journal of International Business Studies, 26, 729-753.
    Black, J. A. and Boal K. B. (1994). Strategic resources: traits, configurations and paths to sustainable competitive adventage. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 131-148.
    Blyler, M., and Coff, R. W. (2003). Dynamic capabilities, social capital, and rent appropriation: ties that split pies. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 677-686.
    Borenstein, M. Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., and Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to Meta-Analysis. NY: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
    Bourgeois, J. L. (1981). On the measurement of organizational slack. Academy of Management Review, 26, 29-39.
    Bourgeois, J. L., and Singh, J. (1983). Organizational proliferation and density dependent selsection. In J. Kimberly an dR. H. Miles (Eds.), The organizational life cycle (pp. 291-338). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Boyd, B. (1990). Corporate linkages and organizational environment: a test of the resource dependence model. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 419-430.
    Boyd, B. K. (1995). CEO duality and firm performance: A contingency model. Strategic Management Journal, 16, 301-312.
    Brouthers, L. E., Brouthers, K. D., and Werner, S. (1999). Is Dunning's Eclectic Framework Descriptive or Normative? Journal of International Business Studies, 30, 831-844.
    *Brush, T. H., and Artz, W. (1999). Toward a contingency resource-based theory: the impact of information asymmetry on the value of capabilities in veteran medicine. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 223-250.
    Burns, T., and Stalker, G. M. (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
    Burton, R. M., Eriksen, B., Hakosson D. D., and Snow, C. C. (2006). Organization design- The evolving state-of-the-art. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
    Capron, L., and Mitchell, W. (2009). Selection capability: how capability gaps and internal social frictions affect internal and external strategic renewal. Organization Science, 20, 294-312.
    Carpenter, R. E., and Petersen, B. C. (2002). Is the growth of small firms constrained by internal finance? The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84, 289-309.
    Castanias, R. P. and Helfat, C. E. (1991). Managerial resources and rents. Journal of Management, 17, 155-171.
    Cave, R. E. (1996). Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Chakravarthy, B. S. (1982). Adaptation: a promising metaphor for strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 7, 35-44.
    Cheng, J. L. C., and Kesner, I. F. (1997). Organizational slack and response to environmental shifts: the impact of resource allocation patterns. Journal of Management, 23, 1-18.
    Chandler, A. D. (1962). Strategy and Structure. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Child, J., Chung, L., and Davies, H. (2003). The performance of cross-border units in China: a test of nature selection, strategic choice and contingency theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 34, 242-254.
    Crook, T. R., Ketchen, D. J., Combs, J. G., and Todd, S. Y. (2008). Strategic resources and performance: a meta-analysis. Strategic Management Journal, 29, 1141-1154.
    Cyert, R. C., and March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. New York: Prentice-Hall.
    Dalton, D. R., and Dalton, C. M. (2005). Strategic management studies are a special case for meta-analysis. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, 2, 31-63.
    Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 555-590.
    Daniel, F., Lohrke, F. T., Fornaciari, R., and Turner, A. (2004). Slack resource and firm performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research, 57, 565-574.
    Day, G. (1994). The capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing, 58, 37-52.
    Delery, J. E. (1998). Issues of fit in strategic human resource management: implications for research. Human Resource Management Review, 8, 289-309.
    Delery, J. E., and Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: test of universalistic, contingency, and configuration performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 802-835.
    Dess, G. G., and Beard, D. W. (1984). Dimensions of organizational task environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 29, 52-73.
    Dierickx, I., and Cool, K. (1989). Asset stock accumulateon and sustainability of competitive advantage. Management Science, 35, 1504-1511.
    Donaldson, L. (1987). Strategy and structural adjustment to regain fit and performance: In defense of contingency theory. Journal of Management Studies, 24, 1-24.
    Donaldson, L. (1995). American Anti-Management Theories of Organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Donaldson, L. (2001). The contingency theory of organizations. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.
    Doty, D., Glick, W., and Huber, G. (1993). Fit, equifinality and organizational-effectiveness: a test of two configurational theories. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 1196-1250.
    Dow, D. (2006). Adaptation and performance in foreign markets: evidence of systematic under-adaptation. Journal of International Business Studies, 37, 212-226.
    Drazin, R., and Van de Ven, A. H. (1985). Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 514-539.
    Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: an assessment and review. Academy of Management Journal, 14, 57-74.
    Eisenhardt, K. M., and Martin, J. A. (2000). Dynamic capabilities: what are they? Strategic Management Journal, 21, 1105-1121.
    Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in top management teams: dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 505-538.
    Finkelstein, S. and Hambrick, D. C. (1996). Strategic leadership: top executives and their effects on organizations. West Publishing: St Paul. MN.
    Fiol, C.M., and Lyles, M.A. (1985). Organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 10, 803-813.
    Floyd, S. W., and Lane, P. J. (2000). Strategizing throughout the organization: managing role conflict in strategic renewal. Academy of Management Review, 25, 154-177.
    Foss, N. J. (1996). Knowledge-based approach to the theory of the firm: some critical comments. Organizations Science, 7, 470-476.
    Fry, L. W., and Smith, D. A. (1987). Congruence, contingency and theory building. Academy of Management Review, 12, 117-132.
    Galbraith, J. R. (1973). Designing complex organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Galbraith, J. R., and Nathanson, D. A. (1978). Strategy implementation: The role of structure and process. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.
    George, G. (2005). Slack resources and the performance of privately held firms. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 661-676.
    Ginsberg, A., and Venkatraman, N. (1985). Contingency perspectives of organizational strategy: A critical review of the empirical research. Academy of Management Review, 10, 421-434.
    Gander, J.P. (1991). Managerial intensity, firm size and growth. Managerial and Decision Economics, 12, 261-266.
    Gresov, C. (1989). Exploring fit and misfit with multiple contingencies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 431-453.
    Greve, H. R. (2008). A behavioral theory of firm growth: sequential attention to size and performance goals. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 476-494.
    Hambrick, D. C. (1994). Top management group: a conceptual integration and reconsideration of the “team” label. Research in Organizational Behavior, 16, 171-213.
    Hambrick, D. C. and Chen, M. J. (1996). The influence of top management team heterogeneity on firms’ competitive moves. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 659-684.
    Hamel, G., and Prahalad, C. K. (1993). Strategy as stretch, Harvard Business Review, Mar.-Apr., 75-84.
    Hamilton, R. T., and Shergill, G. S. (1992). The relationship between strategy-structure fit and financial performance in New Zealand: Evidence of generality and validity with enhanced controls. Journal of Management Studies, 29, 95-113.
    Hay, D.A., and Morris, D.J. (1991). Industrial Economics and Organization: Theory and Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Helfat, C. E., Finkelstein, S., Mitchell, W., Peteraf, M. A., Singh, H., Teece, D. J., and Winter, S. G. (2007). Dynamic capabilities: understanding strategic change in organizations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Henderson, A. D. (1999). Firm strategy and age dependence: A contingent view of the liabilities of newness, adolescence, and obsolescence. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 281-314.
    Hitt, M. A., Bierman, L., Shimizu, K., and Kochhar, R. (2001). Direct and moderating effects of human capital on strategy and performance in professional service firms: a resource-based perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 13-28.
    Hitt, M. A., Boyd, B. K., and Li, D. (2004). The state of strategic management research and a vision of the future. Research Methodology in Strategy and Management, 1, 1-31.
    Hofer, C. W. (1983). ROVA: a new measure of assessing organizational performance. In Lamb, Robert (ed.), Advances in Strategic Management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 2, 43-56.
    Hoffman, J. J., Carter, N. M., and Cullen, J. B. (1994). The effect of lag-structure identification when testing for fit. Organization Studies, 15, 829-848.
    Holcomb, T. R., Holmes, R. M. and Connelly B. L. (2009). Making the most of what you have: Mangrial ability as a source of resource value creation. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 457-485.
    Hunt, S. D. (2000). A General Theory of Competition. Sage Publications, Inc.
    Hunter, J., and Schmidt, F. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis. Newbury Park: Sage Publicaions.
    Jensen, M., and Meckling, W. (1976). Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency cost, and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3, 305-360.
    Kahneman, D., and Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263-291.
    *Katsikeas, C. S., Samiee, S., and Theodosiou, M. (2006). Strategy fit and performance consequences of international marketing standardization. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 867-890.
    Keats, B. W., and Hitt, M. A. (1988). A causal model of linkages among environment dimensions, macro organizational characteristics, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 570-598.
    Ketchen, D. R., Combs, J. G., Russell, C. J., and Shook, C. (1997). Organizational configurations and performance: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 40, 223-240.
    Khandwalla, P. N. (1974). Mass output orientation of operations technology and organizational structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 74-97.
    Kor, Y. Y., and Leblebici, H. (2005). How do interdependencies among human-capital deployment, development, and diversification strategies affect firm’s financial performance? Strategic Management Journal, 16, 967-985.
    Kor, Y. Y., and Mahoney, J. T. (2000). Penrose’s resource based approach: the process and product of research creativity. Journal of Management Studies, 37, 109-139.
    Kor, Y. Y., and Mahoney, J. T. (2004). Edith Penrose’s (1959) contributions to the resource-based view of strategic management. Journal of Management Studies, 41, 183-191.
    Kor, Y. Y., and Mahoney, J. T. (2005). How dynamics, management, and governance of resource deployments influence firm-level performance. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 489-496.
    Kraatz, M. S., and Zajac, E. J. (2001). How organizational resources affect strategic change and performance in turbulent environments: theory and evidence. Organization Science, 12, 632-657.
    Latham, S. F., and Braun, M. (2009). Managerial risk, innovation, and organizational decline. Journal of Management, 35, 258-281.
    Lawrence, P. R. (1975). Strategy: A new conceptualization. In L. S. Sproull (ed.), Seminars on Organizations at Stanford University, 2, 38-40.
    Lawrence, P. R., and Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and Environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration, Division of Research.
    Lawrence, P. R., and Lorsch, J. W. (1969). Organization and Environment. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
    Lengnick-Hall, C. A., and Beck, T. E. (2005). Adaptive fit versus robust transformation: how organizations respond to environmental change. Journal of Management, 31, 758-757.
    *Li, J. J., Poppo, L., and Zhou, K. Z. (2008). Do managerial ties in china always produce value? Competition, uncertainty, and domestic vs. foreign firms. Strategic Management Journal, 29, 383-400.
    Lin, W. T., Cheng, K. Y., and Liu, Y. S. (2009). Organizational slack and firm’s internationalization: a longitudinal study of high-technology firms. Journal of World Business, 44, 397-406.
    *Lin, X., and Germain, R. (2003). Organizational structure, context, customer orientation, and performance: lessons from Chinese state-owned enterprises. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1131-1151.
    Love, E. G., and Nohria, N. (2005). Reducing slack: the performance consequences of downsizing by large industrial firms, 1977-1993. Strategic Management Journal, 26, 1087-1108.
    Lowendahl, B. (1997). Strategic Management of Professional Service Firms. Copenhagen: Handelshojskolens Forlag.
    MacDuffie, J. P. (1995). Human resource bundles and manufacturing performance organizational logic and flexible production systems in the world auto Industry. Industrial and Labor relations review, 48, 197-221.
    Mahoney, J. M., Sundaramurthy, C., and Mahoney, J. T. (1997). The effects of corporate antitakeover provisions in long-term investment: empirical evidence. Managerial and Decision Economics, 18, 349-365.
    Mahoney, J. T. (2005). Economic foundations of strategy. Sage Publications, Inc.
    Mahoney, J. T., and Pandian, J. R. (1992). The resource-based view within the conversation of strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 13, 363-380.
    March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2, 71-87.
    Marino, K. E., and Lange, D. R. (1983). Measuring organizational slack: a note on the convergence and divergence of alternative operational definitions. Journal of Management, 9, 81-92.
    Meilich, O. (2006). Bivariate models of fit in contingency theory- Critique and a polynomial regression alternative. Organizational Research Methods, 9, 161-193.
    Merton, R. K. (1968). Social theory and social structure. New York: The Free Press.
    Meyer, A., Tsui, A., and Hinings, C. (1993). Configurational approaches to organizational analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 1175-1195.
    Miles, R. E., and Snow, C. C. (1978). Organization strategy, structure, and process. New York: Mcgraw-Hill.
    Milgrom, P., and Roberts, J. (1995). Complementarities and fit: Strategy, structure, and organizational change in manufacturing. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 19, 179-208.
    Miller, D. (1992). Environment fit versus internal fit. Organization Science, 3, 159-178.
    Miller, D., and Friesen, P. H. (1984). A longitudinal study of the corporate life cycle. Management Science, 30, 1161-1183.
    Mintzberg, H. T. (1983). Structure in fives: Designing effective organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mishina, Y., Pollock, T. G., and Porac, J. F. (2004). Are more resources always better for growth? Resource stickiness in market and product expansion. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 1179-1197.
    Mohr, L. B. (1971). Organizational Structure and organizational technology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 444-459.
    Monteverde, K. and Teece, D. J. (1982). Supplier switching costs and vertical integration in the automobile industry. The Bell Journal of Economics, 13, 206-213.
    Nadler, D., and Tushman, M. L. (1980). A congruence model for diagnosing organizational behavior. In R. Miler (Ed.), Resource book in macro organizational behavior (p. 30-49). Santa Clara, CA: Goodyear.
    *Naman, J. L., and Slevin, D. P. (1993). Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 137-153.
    Namboodiri, N. K, Carter, L. R. and Blalock, Jr. H. M. (1975). Applied Multivariate Analysis and Experimental Designs. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Newman, K. L., and Nollen, S. D. (1996). Culture and congruence: The fit between management practices and national culture. Journal of International Business Studies, 27, 753-779.
    *Nohria, N. and Ghoshal, S. (1994). Differentiation fit and shared values: alternatives for managing headquarters-subsidiary relations. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 491-502.
    Nohria, N., and Gulati, R. (1996). Is slack good or bad for innovation? Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1245-1264.
    Orser, B.J., Hogarth-Scott, S., and Riding, A.L. (2000). Performance, firm size, and management problem solving, Journal of Small Business Management, 49, 42-58.
    Parker, S. C., and Witteloostuijn, A. V. (2010). A general framework for estimating multidimensional contingency fit. Organization Science, 21, 540-553.
    *Parthasarthy, R., and Sethi, S. P. (1993). Relating strategy and structure to flexible automation: a test of fit and performance implications. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 529-549.
    Peng, M. W. (1997). Firm growth in transitional economies: three longitudinal cases from China, 1986-96. Organization Studies, 18, 385-413.
    Pennings, J. M. (1975). The relevance of the structural-contingency model for organizational effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 393-410.
    Pennings, J. M. (1987). Structural contingency theory: A multivariate test. Organization studies, 8, 223-240
    Penning, J. M. (1992). Structural contingency theory: A reappraisal. Research in Organizational Behavior, 14, 267-309.
    Penrose, E. (1959). The theory of the growth of the firm. Wiley: New York.
    Perrow, C. (1970). Organizational Analysis: A Sociological View. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Peteraf, M. A. (1993). The competitive advent: a resource-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 179-192.
    Peteraf, M. and Reed, R. (2007). Managerial discretion and internal alignment under regulatory constraints and change. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 1089-1112.
    Peterson, R. A., and Brown, S. P. (2005). On the use of beta coefficients in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 175-181.
    Pettus, M. L., Kor, Y. Y., and Mahoney, J. T. (2009). A theory of change in turbulent environments: the sequencing of dynamic capabilities following industry deregulation. International Journal of Strategic Change Management, 1, 186-211.
    Pfeffer, J. (1997). New Directions for Organization Theory: Problems and Prospects. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Pisano, G. P. (1994). Knowledge, integration, and the locus of learning: an empirical analysis of process development. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 85-100.
    Pitelis, C. N. (2007). A behavioral resource-based view of the firm: the synergy of Cyert and March (1963) and Penrose (1959). Organization Science, 18, 478-490.
    Pitelis, C. N. and Teece, D. J. (2009). The nature and essence of the firm. European Management Review, 6, 5-15.
    Porter, M. E. (1996). What is strategy? Harvard Business Review, November/December.
    *Powell, T. C. (1992). Organizational alignment as competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 13, 119-134.
    Pratt, J. W., and Zeckhauser, R. J. (1985). In principals and agents: the structure of business. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Rasheed, H. S. (2005). Foreign entry mode and performance: the moderating effect of environment. Journal of Small Business Management, 43, 41-54.
    Ravasi, D., and Lojacono, G. (2005). Managing design and designers for strategic renewal. Long Range Planning, 38, 51-77.
    Ray, G., Barney, J. B. and Muhanna, W. A. (2004). Capabilities, businesss processes and competitive advent: choosing the dependent variable in empirical tests of the resources-based view. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 23-37.
    Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-Analytic Procedures for Social Research. Sage Publications, Inc.
    Rothaermel, F. T. (2001). Incumbent’s advantage through exploiting complementary assets via interfirm cooperation. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 687-699.
    Rotheaermel, F. T. and Hill, C. W. L. (2005). Technological discontinuities and complementary assets: a longitudinal study of industry and firm performance. Organization Science, 16, 52-70.
    Schmitt, N. W., and Klimoski, R. J. (1991). Summarizing and interpreting human resource research using meta-analyses. In Research methods in human resources management. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing.
    Schoonhoven, C. B. (1981). Problems with contingency theory: Testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency “theory.” Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 349-377.
    Shane, S.A. (1996). Hybrid organizational arrangements and their implications for firm growth and survival: a study of new franchisors. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 216-234.
    Sharfman, M. P., Wolf, G., Chase, R. B., and Tansik, D. A. (1988). Antecedents of organizational slack, Academy of Management Review, 13, 601-614.
    Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., and Ketchen Jr. D. J. (2008). Research on organizational configurations: Past accomplishments and future challenges. Journal of Management, 34, 1053-1079.
    Siggelkow, N. (2001). Change in the presence of fit: the rise, the fall, and the renaissance of Liz Claiborne. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 838-857.
    Siggelkow, N. (2002a). Misperceiving interactions among complements and substitutes: Organizational consequences. Management Science, 48, 900-916.
    Siggelkow, N. (2002b). Evolution toward fit. Administrative Science Quarterly, 47, 125-159.
    Singh, J. (1986). Performance, slack and risk taking in organizational decision making. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 562-585.
    Sirmon, D. G., and Hitt, M. A. (2009). Contingencies within dynamic managerial capabilities: interdependent effects of resource investment and deployment on firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 1375-1394.
    Stinchcombe, A. L. (1968). Constructing social theories. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.
    Thompson, J. D. 1967. Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Tan, D., and Mahoney, J.T. (2005). Examining the Penrose effect in an international business context: the dynamics of Japanese firm growth in U.S. industries. Managerial and Decision Economics, 26, 113-127.
    Tan, D., and Mahoney, J.T. (2007). The dynamics of Japanese firm growth in U.S. industries: the Penrose effect. Management International Review, 47, 259-279.
    Tan, J., and Peng, M. W. (2003). Organizational slack and firm performance during economic transitions: two studies from an emerging economy. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1249-1263.
    Teece, D. J. (1986). Profiting from technological innovation: implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy. Research Policy, 15, 285-305.
    Teece, D. J. (2007). Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and microfoundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 1319-1350.
    Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., and Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 509-553.
    *Thomas, A. S., Litschert, R. J., and Ramaswamy, K. (1991). The performance impact of strategy-manager coalignment: an empirical examination. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 509-522.
    Thompson, J. D. (1967). Organizations in action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thompson, R.S. (1994). The franchise life cycle and the Penrose effect. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 24, 207-218.
    Tripsas, M. (1997). Unraveling the process of creative destruction: complementary assets and incumbent survival in the typesetter industry. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 119-142.
    Tsai, W. and Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital and value creation: the role of intrafirm networks. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 464-476.
    Tseng, C. H., Tansuhaj, P., Hallagan, W., and McCullough, J. (2007). Effects of firm resources on growth in multinationality. Journal of International Business Studies, 38, 961-974.
    Tushman, M. L. (1978). Technical communication in R. & D. laboratories: The impact of project work characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 22, 624-645.
    Van de Ven, A., and Drazin, R. (1985). The concept of fit in contingency theory. In Cummings, L. L. and B. M. Staw (eds). Research in Organizational Behavior, JAI Press, New York , 7, 333-365.
    Venkatraman, N. (1989). The concept of fit in strategy research: Toward verbal and statistical correspondence. Academy of Management Review, 14, 423-444.
    Venkatraman, N., and Camillus J.C. (1984). Exploring the concept of “fit” in strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 9, 513-525.
    *Venkatraman, N., and Prescott, J. E. (1990). Environment strategy coalignment: An empirical test of its performance implications. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 1-23.
    Virany, B., Tushman, M. L., and Romanelli, E. (1992). Executive succession and organization outcomes in turbulent environments: an organization learning approach. Organization Science, 3, 72-91.
    Voss, G. B., Sirdeshmukh, D., and Voss, Z. G. (2008). The effects of slack resources and environmental threat on product exploration and exploitation. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 147-164.
    Wang, H. C., He, J., and Mahoney, J. T. (2009). Firm-specific knowledge resources and competitive advantage: the roles of economic-and relationship-based employee governance mechanisms. Strategic Management Journal, 30, 1265-1285.
    Ward, P. T., Bickford, D. J., and Leong, G. K. (1996). Configurations of manufacturing strategy, business strategy, environment and structure. Journal of Management, 22, 597-626.
    Wernerfelt, B. (1984). A resource-base view of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, 5, 171-180.
    Wholey, D. R., and Brittain, J. W. (1986). Organizational Ecology: Findings and Implications. Academy of Management Review, 11, 513-533.
    Wilkund, J. and Shepherd, D. (2003). Aspiring for, and achieving growth: the moderating role of resources and opportunities. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1919-1941.
    Woodward, J. (1965). Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Zajac, E. J., Kraatz, M. S., and Bresser R. K. F. (2000). Modeling the dynamics of strategic fit: A normative approach to strategic change. Strategic Management Journal, 21, 429-453.
    Zott, C. and Amit, R. (2008). The fit between product market strategy and business model: implications for firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 29, 1-26.
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    企業管理研究所
    95355512
    100
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0953555121
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[企業管理學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    512101.pdf2959KbAdobe PDF445View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback