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    Title: 權力基礎理論:對權力者的信任感與權力效果的探討 (I)
    Other Titles: Trust in the Powerholder and the Benefits of Power--- An Application of Power Basis Theory in Taiwan
    Authors: 李怡青
    Contributors: 國立政治大學心理學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 社會權力;社會知覺;信任感;權力增生性
    social power;social perception;trust;fungibility
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-11-08 14:05:50 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 社會權力廣泛存在台灣社會,屬於華人文化高度發展的概念,突顯權力研究的重要。然而權力研究者往往面臨權力定義的分歧,檢驗不同類型的權力(如資源控制、武力)。權力基礎理論(Pratto, Lee, Tan, & Pipitan, in press)即以此權力研究的瓶頸為切入點,提出權力對應需求的觀點,說明何以不同權力皆可有效,並提出三個權力互動的原則。根據權力基礎理論,不同權力皆可影響互動者順權力者之意,是因為權力對應個體需求。而由於個體有不同需求,不同權力對應各別需求皆可產生效力。個體對需求的敏感程度決定權力者的影響力。此外,透過權力互動的觀察,權力基礎理論指出權力有增生性的優勢:具有特定類型權力的個體,可以藉其權力獲取其他權力,而不減其原有權力。最後,滿足個體需求或製造個體需求匱乏的權力使用,雖皆可產生權力效果,但是權力者予人的觀感有別。滿足個體需求的權力者使人信任,製造個體需求匱乏的權力者則令人戒慎。根據中外權力文獻,我發現與權力基礎理論一致的證據,進而提出兩年研究,檢驗個體的隱性權力理論。隱性權力理論說明個體由權力類型推測權力者使用權力的目的,並進而影響其對權力者的觀感與權力效果。滿足需求的權力者使人有信任感,製造需求匱乏的權力者則使人不信任,而滿足需求的權力者可享有較大的權力增生性。第一年研究檢驗權力類型如何影響個體假定權力者的權力使用,與其對權力者觀感的影響。第二年研究檢驗相較於製造需求匱乏的權力使用,滿足需求的權力是否較具增生性。兩年研究可提供對權力運作基本原則的證據檢驗,除可以實徵資料檢驗權力基礎理論,且透過對權力互動原則的了解,可更深入探究台灣社會權力不對等的人際關係與群際關係。
    Trust in the Powerholder and the Effects of Power: An Application of Power Basis Theory in Taiwan Social power is pervasive and a highly elaborated concept in Taiwan. Studying the dynamics and basic principles of power can provide for insight in understanding Taiwanese psychology, such as interpersonal and intergroup interactions. In the power literature, researchers have debated on the proper definition of power and have adopted different operational definitions for power. Pratto, Lee, Tan, and Pipitan (in press) proposed a Power Basis Theory to explain why different types of power can be effective. They argued that power can be effective because it corresponds to human needs. Powerholders can exert influence over others by satisfying others' needs or by threatening to deprive of other's needs. Three basic principles were offered in the Power Basis Theory. First, powerholders' influence depends on the powerless' sensitivity of the needs. Second, powerholders can use one kind of power to gain other kinds of power, without losing their original power. This principle was termed fungibility in Power Basis Theory. Third, perceptions of powerholders differ by the way they use power. Individuals trust powerholders when the powerholders aim to satisfy the powerless' needs. According to Power Basis Theory, powerholders who aim to satisfy others' needs are expected to enjoy more fungibility, compared to powerholders who aim to deprive of others' needs. From a Power Basis Theory perspective, I proposed three studies to examine 1) whether individuals have implicit power theory that different types of power are linked with different uses of power and whether such linkage results in different levels of trust in the powerholders, and 2) powerholders who aim to satisfy others' needs enjoy more fungibility compared to pwoerholders who aim to deprive of others' needs. Research evidence from the three studies can examine hypotheses derived from Power Basis Theory and offer implications to power dynamics in interpersonal and intergroup relations in Taiwan.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:793仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 國科會研究計畫

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