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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/55546


    Title: 漢語兒童敘事中心智語言的發展:質量並重的長期觀察
    Other Titles: The Development of Refereces to Frames of Mind in Mandarin-Speaking Children's Narratives---A Longitudinal Study
    Authors: 薩文蕙
    Contributors: 政治大學英國語文系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 敘事發展;心智語言;認知發展;漢語兒童
    Mandarin-speaking children;frames of mind;narrative focus;perspective-shifting;frog story;static picture description;dynamic event narration
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2012-11-16
    Abstract: 兒童透過敘事表達自己,並藉此與外界溝通互動,其敘事能力發展的研究,可提供我們關於孩童發展歷程中多方面的豐富訊息。敘事時,除透過述說(reference)告知聽者有關事件的人、事、時、地等訊息;亦需仰賴評論(evaluation)透露敘事者對該事件所抱持的態度、想法,並凸顯出事件主旨及其可資報導的理由。敘事者透過各種不同的語言機製表達其評論及看法,其中心智語言的使用,在文獻中受到諸多關注與討論。在針對孩童評論能力發展之跨年齡層的研究中,Bamberg 與Damrad-Frye(1991)指出,在各種類型的評論語言中,心智語言的發展尤為突出。他們發現其各年齡層的受試者於心智語言的使用上,質量均有明顯差異。同樣地,Chang(2001)指出心智語言是唯一展現年齡主效應的評論語言種類。Huang(2002)的相關研究中亦發現,孩童心智語言的使用總量隨年齡增長而增加;她並指出不同類別的心智語彙在不同年齡層有不同分佈情形。敘事者透過心智語言描述自己或他人的情緒、心智活動或心智狀態。心智語言的使用與敘事者角度切換的能力息息相關;而角度切換的功夫須有足夠的認知能力為後盾。 Tager-Flusberg & Sullivan(1995)曾評述如此的認知能力對敘事表達頗為重要。因為,好的故事須提及故事人物的行為動機,而好的敘事者不僅應具備穿梭故事人物多個視角的能力,尚須能符合言談溝通的條件,體認到聽眾的需求。發展心理學的文獻對角度切換能力的發展著墨甚多,諸如心智理論(theory of mind)與Piaget 的認知發展理論,對於角度切換能力與認知發展間的關係有清楚闡釋。是以,對認知發展理論的瞭解,有助於對心智語言發展脈絡之掌握。語言發展與認知發展間的關係錯綜複雜。文獻中對此方面的研究多針對以英語為母語的兒童為主,以漢語兒童為對象的相關研究有如鳳毛麟角。鑑於此,本研究旨在剖析漢語兒童敘事中心智語言的發展歷程,以彰顯語言與認知發展的微妙互動。不同於前人跨年齡層的研究作法,我們透過長期觀察收集敘事表達語料,以對心智語言的發展作質量並重的分析。在量的方面,我們將心智語彙做更細緻的分類,以年齡及性別為指標,檢驗各類別的心智語言其發展之軌跡。在質的方面,我們試圖以心智理論為主,以Piaget 的認知發展理論為輔,來詮釋心智語言發展與認知發展間的互動關係,以期一窺孩童敘事中心智語言發展上的豐富樣貌。此外,我們以Frog, where are you? 為題材,來引發研究對象的敘事表達,一方面為國內兒童在這個研究場域中留下珍貴語料,另一方面亦利於將研究結果作跨語文的對應比較。是以,本計畫不僅可充實此方面研究的語料內涵,亦可修正以往所提之理論,增進理論內涵的完整性,更可藉本計畫之實證研究強化理論之普遍性。
    ‘Frames of mind (FOM)’ expressions consist of references to emotional states, mental states or activities, the importance of which has been widely recognized. In Bamberg and Damrad-Frye’s (1991) cross-sectional study, they note that there are quantitative and qualitative differences between older and younger children in terms of the use of references to FOM. It is thus the goal of the present work to explore the development of the use of FOM references in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers’ narratives. Twelve Mandarin-speaking preschoolers, six boys and six girls, served as subjects in this study. The narrative data were collected at four time points throughout the observation period. The mean age of the children was 5;5 months at the first session of data collection, and 6;2 months at the last session. Children’s narratives were elicited on the basis of the wordless book, Frog, where are you. Quantitative as well as qualitative analyses were performed to examine the research issues. Our quantitative data suggest that Mandarin-speaking preschoolers tend to increase their use of FOM expressions over time. Our results, however, do not yield main effect for Age, Type or Gender. Qualitatively, we detect that preschoolers’ narrative focus progresses from static picture description to dynamic event narration, and that female preschoolers evolve into the event-oriented stage earlier than their male counterparts. Once children enter the event-oriented stage, they begin to include more FOM references, along with other elaborate expressions, to interpret story events. We note that not only narrative focus but perspective-shifting ability may influence the employ of FOM expressions. With gradual unfolding of the perspective-shifting ability, children begin to interpret story characters’ states of mind more often and consider the perspectives from more than one character. The outcome of our work not only advances our understanding of the use of FOM expressions in young children, but contributes to the sample pool of the frog story some valuable narrative data from Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9508~ 9607
    研究經費:461仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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