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    Title: 台灣高等教育「全英語授課」教師之專業發展
    Other Titles: English-Medium Instruction Teachers’ Professional Development in Taiwanese Higher Education
    Authors: 黃怡萍
    Contributors: 國立政治大學英國語文學系
    行政院國家科學委員會
    Keywords: 教育學;語文
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2012-11-16
    Abstract: 雖然「全英語授課」已成為東亞教育發展趨勢(Nunan, 2003),研究顯示並非人人都可成為有效能的全英語授課教師(e.g., Chen, 2008; Hudson, 2009;Vinke et al., 1998),這些教師如同其他的師資培育者,通常無法直接將之前的教學經驗與角色轉換應用在目前的教學情境上,而需要重新學習或調適(e.g. Berry, 2007; Loughran, 2006)。教師面對日趨多元化的學生,而在缺乏相關教學經驗(apprenticeships of observation)與行政支援下,究竟這群教師如何學習以英語在台灣高等教育下教學?他們如何從生手教師演變成資深教師?受實證主義影響,目前文獻多半著重在教師語言(教學)能力的缺乏此一面向,而忽略情境脈絡 (context) 因素對於教師知識建構與專業發展的重要性(e.g., Borg, 2003;Freeman, 2002)。例如,相關研究發現不同的課程設計類型提供會影響教學效能(e.g., Kyeyune, 2003;Wannagat, 2007);研究者 97-99 年國科會計畫初步分析結果發現,「全英語授課」課程設計反映出特殊的學校文化,進而影響專業社群的教學行為與認知。研究者今年以四年制大學作抽樣文件調查,歸納出「全英語授課」課程有四類設計:「學園式」、「學院式」、「學程式」、與「個別科目」。這些不同課程設計方式會形塑何種特有文化,進而影響教師教學與專業成長?影響方式為何?為深入探討「全英語授課」教師之專業成長與情境因素(如課程設計所反映出的學校文化)之影響性,研究者擬定兩年之質性個案研究(see Merriam,1992),以敘事性批判民族誌(see Huang, 2008)為方法,以教師專業發展歷程為切入點,第一年針對北部一所私立「學院式全英語授課」大學之資深與新手教師(各2 位)做為期一學期的半結構式訪談(2 次)與課室觀察(各1 班),此外,並針對各班4 位學生進行半結構式的團體訪談(2 次)與2 位行政人員的個人訪談(1 次),這些資料將作為三角測量法的基準, 用以提升研究之信效度。資料將以Carspecken (1996) 的再建構方式( reconstructive analysis ) 分析, 以維高斯基( Vygotsky ) 的社會文化理論 (sociocultural theory) (e.g., Lantolf, 2000; Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch, 1985) 為理論基礎。第二年則會選擇一所公立「學程式全英語授課」大學作為研究場域,研究對象、資料收集與分析方式跟第一年相同。研究者期能藉此研究找出不同的課程設計類型與學校文化中,資深與新手教師發展同異之處,以深入探究情境脈絡之影響性,並盼能由此提供教師專業成長之實務與理論基礎,以促進提升學生學習效能。註:此兩年期計畫案是研究者97-99 年國科會計畫「台灣高等教育國際化之課程探討: 一個敘事性批判民族誌研究」(「學園式」、訪談為主)與98 年政大新進教師研究計畫補助案「台灣高等教育全英語授課教師專業知識之分析」(「個別科目」、訪談與課室觀察並重)之延伸。前者以「學園式」全英語授課學校為研究場域,後者為本計畫案之前導研究,將選定「個別科目」以全英語授課的學校作為研究場域,因此本計畫案只著重探討「學院式」與「學程式」全英語授課課程。
    Although Nunan (2003) indicates that English-medium instruction (EMI) has become an educational trend in East Asia, the empirical studies on EMI in higher education show that not all the EMI teachers were effective presumably because of their lack of English teaching knowledge (e.g., Chen, 2008; Hudson, 2009;Vinke et al., 1998), suggesting that these teachers, like other teacher educators (e.g., Berry, 2007), might be unable to have a direct transfer from their previous teaching/learning experiences to the current ones. Without “apprenticeships of observation,” how these EMI teachers learn to teach becomes an important question for quality teaching. In addition, most of the empirical studies on EMI in higher education, under the impact of positivism, seem to focus simply on teachers’ lack of English teaching knowledge without recognizing the significant roles context plays in teachers’ knowledge construction (e.g., Borg, 2003;Freeman, 2002). Research related to EMI suggests that different types of curriculum and teacher-student interaction might influence the effectiveness of EMI (e.g., Kyeyune, 2003;Wannagat, 2007). In particular, the preliminary analysis of my previous NSC research on campus-wise EMI teachers in a private university suggests that curriculum designs might affect teachers’ instructional action and their subsequent interpretation. My current document analysis on the Taiwanese universities indicates four types of EMI curriculum deigns: campus-wise, college-wise, program-wise, and subject-wise. Our research question is then transformed as follows: how might different EMI curricula (and other contextual factors) impact teachers’ instruction and their learning to teach? In order to explore how contextual factors might affect teachers’ learning to teach with a particular focus on different curriculum types, this two-year research project will examine two novice and two experienced teachers’ professional development in one private university with a college-wise EMI design (the first year) and one public university with a program-wise EMI design (the second year) by using a qualitative case study (Merriam, 1992) and a narrative critical ethnography (Huang, 2008) for its recognition of the importance of narrative construction of teacher knowledge/development (see Clandinin & Connelly, 1995, 2000). Two administrators and sixteen students (four for each teacher/class) will be recruited for each school for the purpose of triangulation. Data will be collected from the following: (a) documents, (b) teachers’ individual semi-structured interviews (twice) and one-semester classroom observation, (c) administrators’ individual semi-structured interviews (once), and (d) students’ group semi-structured interviews (twice). Data will be analyzed based on Carspecken’s (1996) reconstructive analysis and Vygotskian sociocultural theory (e.g., Lantolf, 2000; Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch, 1985). By so doing, this research aims to provide appropriate scaffolding for EMI teachers and their students through an in-depth understanding of the ways different contextual factors might influence teachers’ professional development in the face of internationalization of higher education. Note that since the campus-wise EMI design has been examined in my previous NSC research and since the subject-wise one will be studied in the Spring semester of 2010 in my NCCU research, functioning as a pilot study for this NSC project, only a college-wise (the first year) and a program-wise EMI designs (the second year) will be adopted in this study.
    Relation: 基礎研究
    學術補助
    研究期間:9908~ 10007
    研究經費:740仟元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 國科會研究計畫

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