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    Title: 中東歐民主化外部因素之研究—以捷克為例
    The external factors in democratization in central and Eastern Europe: the case of the Czech Republic
    Authors: 梁曉文
    Liang, Hsiao Wen
    Contributors: 林永芳
    Lin, Yung Fang
    梁曉文
    Liang, Hsiao Wen
    Keywords: 中東歐
    捷克
    絲絨革命
    民主化
    外部因素
    Central and Eastern Europe
    Czech Republic
    Velvet Revolution
    democratization
    external factors
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2012-12-03 11:31:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1989年中東歐政局發生重大變化,波蘭、匈牙利與捷克斯洛伐克共黨在社會團體與民運人士大規模抗議下交出政權,結束此區域長久以來的共黨統治。1991年斯洛維尼亞正式脫離南斯拉夫,波海三國亦獲獨立,中東歐新興國家開始民主轉型。本文首先探討促成1989年中東歐民主革命的外部因素,如較和緩的國際情勢、蘇共自由化政策、美國及國際組織援助等,接著以捷克為個案,分析外部因素對絲絨革命及民主化之作用。
    赫爾辛基最後議定書等關於民主與人權的文件,鼓舞了七七憲章之草擬;波蘭與匈牙利的政局變化,對捷克斯洛伐克產生示範作用,異議人士、環保團體或宗教力量跨國串連,輔以西方媒體作用,是絲絨革命動員的契機。與1968年受華約軍隊鎮壓的布拉格之春相比,絲絨革命得以成功,蘇共總書記Mikhail Gorbachev (Михаил Горбачёв)放棄干涉中東歐國家內政是重要關鍵,強硬的捷共政府因而失去壓制國內民主訴求的正當性。
    此後捷克「回歸歐洲」外交走向,使歐安組織、歐洲理事會與美國運用民主、人權規範及各項援助,深化其轉型程度。北約和歐盟以會籍作為條件設定,直接或間接散播民主規範,並透過捷克當地政治菁英及政黨,歐盟外部治理成功使人民對歐洲化及歐盟產生認同。2003年入盟公投通過後,歐盟外部治理有了民意基礎,影響力更為強化,主導捷克民主發展。
    In 1989 the unexpected enormous democratic revolutions in Central and Eastern European countries led to the crash of the communist governments in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Two years later, officially departing from Yugoslavia, Slovenia started its own democratic transition, and the Baltic states also attained independence from the Soviet Union.
    First of all, we would like to discuss the external factors triggering the democratic revolutions in this area in 1989, such as the less tense international circumstances, the liberal reforms of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and the assistance from the US and the relative international organizations. Then the discussion goes further to the case of the Czech Republic to make it clear how external factors affected the Velvet Revolution and how democratic values were promoted in the Czech Republic.
    The Helsinki Final Act, announced for democracy and the human rights in 1975, inspired the publication of Charter 77. The political change in Poland and Hungary turned into demonstration effect on Czech politics. Besides, the transnational connection of dissidents or the religion groups, and the western media both facilitated the mobilization for a democratic regime. Compared to the Prague Spring of 1968, crushed by the invading Soviet troops, the success of the Velvet Revolution was largely contributed by Mikhail Gorbachev’s decision not to interfere in the internal affairs in this area. Thus, the Czech communist government lost its legitimacy to suppress democratic campaigns.
    With the slogan “Return to Europe,” Czech Republic had made it possible for international activists including OSCE, COE and the US to impose their influences on Czech’s transition to democracy. In the accession process to the EU/ NATO, western activists spread democracy norms into the Czech Republic directly or indirectly by conditionality. Through local political elites and political parties, the EU successfully built Czech people’s identity toward EU by its external governance. Meanwhile, the positive result of Czech’s EU entry referendum in 2003 even strengthened EU’s influence as a leading external role in Czech’s democratization after the Velvet Revolution.
    Reference: 一、英文資料
    專著
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    Haggard, Stephan and Moravcsik, Andrew, “The Political Economy of Financial Assistance to Eastern Europe, 1989-1991,” in Koehane, Robert O. and Nye, Joseph S. and Hoffmann, Stanley eds., After the Cold War: International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989-1991 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993).
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    期刊
    Azzpuru, Dinorah and Finkel, Steven E. and Perez-Linan, Anibal and Seligson, Mitchell A. “Trends in Democratic Assistance: What has the United Sates Been Doing?” Journal of Democracy, Vol. 19, No. 2 (April 2008), pp. 150~159.
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    電子文獻
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    網站
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    二、捷克文資料
    專著
    Dančák, Břetislav, “Pozice a Zájmy ČR v Evropské a Transatlantické Bezpečnostní Dimenzi (Position and Interests of the Czech Republic in the European and Transatlantic Security Dimension),” in Dočkal, Vít and Fiala, Petr and Kaniok, Petr and Pitrová, Markéta eds., Česká Politika v Evropské Unii: Evropský Integrační Proces a Zájmy České Republiky (The Czech Politics in the EU: European Integration Process and the Interests of the Czech Republic) (Brno: Masarykova Univerzita, Mezinárodní Politologický Ústav, 2006).

    新聞
    20 Let České Ekonomiky: Od Pokusů k Relativní Prosperitě (20 years of the Czech Economy: From Experimentation to Relative Prosperity), Česká Televize, 2009/11/16, http://www.ceskatelevize.cz/ct24/ekonomika/72780-20-let-ceske-ekonomiky-od-pokusu-k-relativni-prosperite. (accessed:2012/10/13)

    網站
    捷克總統府網站(Prague Castle, Office of the President of the Czech Republic),
    1993年捷克憲法,
    英文版:http://www.hrad.cz/en/czech-republic/constitution-of-the-cr.shtml,
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    捷克國會參議院(The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic),
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    三、俄文資料
    期刊
    Бухарин Н.И. Преобразования в Странах Центрально-Восточной и Юго-Восточной Европы: Достижения и Проблемы (Transformation in Central Eastern and Southeastern Europe: Achievements and Challenges)// Россия и Современный Мир: Науч. журн. / РАН. ИНИОН, Институт Экономики - 2010. -№ 2, C. 49-64.

    電子文獻
    Глинкина С.П. Методология многоуровневого анализа посткоммунистических трансформаций (The Methodology of Multi-level Analysis of Post-Communist Transformations): Науч. докл. -М., 2008, http://www.imepi-eurasia.ru/baner/Methodology.pdf. (accessed:2011/10/14)
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    新聞
    Двадцать лет чешскому «бархату» (20 years of the czech «Velvet»), РИА Новости, 2009/11/17, http:/ria.ru/analytics/20091117/194143212.html. (2012/10/13)

    四、中文資料
    專著
    Boutros-Ghali, Boutros,「民主化議程一:國際層級的民主化」,Barry, Holden等著,何哲欣譯,全球民主 (台北:韋伯文化,2006年)。
    Diamond, Larry and Plattner, Marc,田弘茂、朱雲漢主編,新興民主的機遇與挑戰 (台北:業強出版社,1997年)。
    Huntington, Samuel P.,劉軍寧譯,第三波 : 二十世紀末的民主化浪潮 (台北:五南圖書,1994年)。
    Sorensen, George,李酉潭、陳志瑋譯,最新民主與民主化 (台北:韋伯文化,2003年)。
    Whitehead, Laurence,朱柔若譯,民主的代價:冷戰後全球的民主化運動 (台北:國立編譯館,1995年)。
    楊三億,「誘因政策與民主化過程:以塞爾維亞為例」,林碧昭、鄧中堅等著,金磚國家之俄羅斯及歐亞地區研究(台北:五南圖書,2012年)。

    期刊
    朱雪瑛,「『民主和平論』之分析與美國『推廣民主』之戰略」,台灣民主季刊,第二卷第一期(2005年3月),頁123~158。
    洪茂雄,「後共產主義時期捷克的政治發展-民主化與歐洲化」,問題與研究,第36卷第9期 (1997年9月),頁13~25。
    楊三億,「後冷戰時期中東歐權力結構分析」,問題與研究,第41卷第2期 (2002年4月),頁89~103。
    楊三億,「捷克入盟前環境政策之歐洲化學習過程」,歐美研究,第41卷第2期(2011年6月),頁643~572。

    魏百谷,「波海三國獨立公投」,新世紀智庫論壇,第48期(2009年12月),頁20~24。

    電子文獻
    楊三億、蔡怡萍,「民主化與歐盟擴張:從典範擴散與制度平台看捷克民主化過程」,http://tpsa.hcu.edu.tw/ezcatfiles/b083/img/img/1183/C7-2.pdf. (檢視日期:2012/10/31)
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    97263009
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097263009
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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