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    Title: 電視媒體問責起源與發展—論國內外制度理論與實踐
    Authors: 王亞維
    Contributors: 政大廣電系
    Keywords: 媒體;問責;社會責任論
    media;accountability;social responsibility
    Date: 2012-07
    Issue Date: 2013-03-14 09:58:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 電視媒體市場隨著 1980 年代「解除管制」政策與新的科技發展導致競爭空
    前激烈,市場力量先影響至報業的專業與倫理,而原來管制門檻較高的傳統電視
    市場也受到「解除管制」的影響,公營與民營頻道日趨商品化,全球電視產業所
    呈現的「公共利益私有化」(privatizing public interest)的問題日益嚴峻,過去平衡
    公民社會與媒體關係的「社會責任論」已不敷使用,當代公民社會與媒體關係面
    對新秩序的重構。
    「問責」 (accountability)的理論在 20 世紀 80 年代由先由審計稽核的領域,
    為公共行政學術領域將其意義擴大,其面向擴展及政府、非政府組織、組織內部
    與外部等範圍,而其內涵則由責任延伸至倫理議題,乃至於資訊透明度與主動說
    明等概念。90 年代「問責」也受到傳播學者的重視與研究,與其他領域的治理
    方式從理論乃至於立法到制度面進行落實,但是各國實行時間不長,成效也還待
    評估,然「問責」理論的內涵在持續改變中有逐漸形成「典範」的趨勢。
    我國在 1987 年解除戒嚴後,電視媒體結構由以往的政治勢力操控轉向自由
    與開放,在政治退位後也進行「解除管制」,但新的傳播法令不及建立、而公民
    社會也尚在發展,因此新興的商業力量迅速取代政治成為電視媒體最重要的影響
    者。在競爭加劇,為爭食有限的廣告利潤,節目強調刺激收視為普遍的手段,致
    使內容品質與多元性大受質疑;原本具有公器內涵的電視媒體向財團或是特定政
    黨的私利傾斜,學者與公民團體也多年批判公民社會多元、包容、人權、倫理等
    基本價值已受到侵蝕,我國電視媒體的公共性與專業性幾近萎縮。
    上述問題其實在全世界都發生,近年歐洲國家立法建構媒體的「問責」機制,
    嘗試以新的思維制衡市場力量,拉回公民社會在媒體中的位置。我國國家通訊傳
    播委員會於 2011 年開始大力推行電視媒體「問責」,並以之為評鑑與換照的政
    策工具,歐洲國家在「問責」理論的轉化與機制設計的意涵究竟如何?「典範轉
    移」過程是否可供我國監理政策與各電視媒體發展類似機制參考,有其重要的研
    究價值。
    The problem of privatizing public interest appearing in the global media industries
    has increasingly become serious. And this is also the challenge the current civil
    society and the managing of media policies are facing. This tendency has made a
    profound impact on the media industries. The broadcast ,used to be a public forum,
    employed freedom of speech as the keystone of the democratic society, with the value
    of self discipline, so in democratic countries there used to be less censorship .
    However, in recent years due to the keen competition of the media market, the
    instincts of private enterprises have arisen to make their contents tend to entertain
    their readers before everything. In order to maintain the subscription, the amount of
    sensational news and tabloidization has become higher, thus suppressing the
    professionalism and ethics that media scholars and professionals have established for
    years and infringing public interests.
    The theory of accountability attained the attention and further study of the Western
    academic field of broadcasting in the latest ten years of the twentieth century. With
    the dawn of the new century, the countries of Western Europe and Northern Europe
    employed policy designs to start constructing a concrete system of accountability.
    But the time of practicing it is not long, and the fruits still need evaluation. Owing
    to the different situations of the states, the model varies , it’s not necessarily feasible
    to direct plant their systems to Taiwan. It’s extremely worth to research and develop
    the conditions of our own mechanism of accountability.
    Relation: 中華傳播學會年會
    Data Type: conference
    Appears in Collections:[廣播電視學系] 會議論文

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