二十一世紀伊始，委內瑞拉強人查維茲隨即呼籲拉美友邦，共同起來反對由美國推動的美洲自由貿易區，並加入從古巴得到靈感的社會主義建設模式—玻利瓦美洲替代方案，以便在北美洲帝國衰頹時做好應變的準備。查維茲在拉美進行遠交近攻的策略，不但公開支持玻利維亞的莫拉雷斯，以及被美國國務院定位為境外恐怖組織的哥倫比亞革命武裝力量，同時又從俄羅斯購買武器，壯大自己的聲勢。查維茲此舉導致拉丁美洲風雲再起，原本錯綜複雜的區域情勢，似乎又回到了冷戰時代詭譎多變的集團對抗，只是本次造成爭議的主軸，已經由國際政治安全轉移到國際政治經濟，東西安全對抗也轉變成南北貧富差距。拉丁美洲國家在全球化浪潮衝擊下，內部逐漸興起的區域自主意識，及其抵禦北方國家資本主義的決心，乃至於效法歐盟向左看齊的政治立場，從而推動以社會主義為核心價值的區域整合，已經由玻利瓦美洲替代方案集其大成。雖然此一方案是否能夠通過全球金融風暴的考驗，目前仍然存在諸多變數。不過查維茲經由區域組織動員的方式，形塑西半球南北分治的企圖，已經產生一定程度的作用。倘使查維茲在拉丁美洲成功推動集體安全的共識，未來勢將影響西半球政經情勢的發展。 Towards the beginning of the 21st century, Hugo Chávez, the strong man of Venezuela, convoked his Latin American allies to fight against the Free Trade Area of the Americas proposed by the United States. Inspired by Cuban style socialism, he presented the Bolivarian Alternative in order to prepare themselves best in facing the decline of the American empire. He not only publicly supported Evo Morales of Bolivia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces in Colombia, but also purchased a great amount of arms from Russia to strengthen his domineering posture. What Chávez did has raised a new disturbance in Latin America. The region’s already complicated situation seems to have returned to a situation of conflicts between different groups. However, this time the focus for dispute is not international political security or the confrontation between East and West but instead international political economy or the confrontation between northern countries and southern countries. Under the influence of globalization, the rising regional self-identity, their determination to fight against capitalism, the left-wing political position following the experience of the European Union and the regional integration under socialism have all merged into the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas. It is still uncertain if the Alternative can endure through the global financial crisis. Nevertheless, through the mobilization of Chávez in Latin America, his intention to form a divided West Hemisphere between northern and southern America has enjoyed some kind of success. If Chávez can effectively motivate a consensus of collective security, a new political and economic development in the West Hemisphere might be expected.