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    Title: 老人居住安排-居住安排轉換、年歲增長與居住安排、居住安排滿意改變之探討
    The Living Arrangements of the Elderly: An Analysis of Living Arrangement Transitions, Aging and Living Arrangement, and Changes in Satisfaction with Living Arrangements
    Authors: 張桂霖
    Chang, Guey Lin
    Contributors: 張金鶚
    Chang, Chin Oh
    張桂霖
    Chang, Guey Lin
    Keywords: 居住安排
    居住安排轉換
    老化
    居住安排滿意
    老人住宅
    人與環境一致
    living arrangements
    living arrangement transitions
    aging
    satisfaction with living arrangement
    seniors housing
    person-environment congruence
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-07-23 13:37:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文首先介紹臺灣老人的居住安排基本概況。接著,以交換理論與家庭價值觀,分析居住安排的轉換。同時,從經濟因素與需要因素的推拉作用以及家庭價值觀與交換理論,分析老人「移與子女居」和「子女回居」。再接著,應用相同樣本探討年歲增長與居住安排的關係,分析一群老人從初老經過中老到老老三個階段的居住安排。最後,以人與環境一致模式、基本生活需求滿足假說,分析老人居住安排滿意與否的改變。
    以往討論老人居住安排的轉換,大多以家庭價值觀解釋,強調感情因素,當老人有最大需要時,例如,健康惡化或從有偶變成無偶,更可能發生轉換為與子女同住。但現代化社會,經濟因素轉趨重要,可能需要以交換理論補強。因此,本論文使用我國行政院衛生署與密西根大學合作之「臺灣地區中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查」縱斷面調查資料,進行老人居住安排轉換的分析研究,觀察居住安排轉換行為,以檢視這兩種觀點對於居住安排轉換的解釋力。又,以往的相關研究大多以靜態變數為解釋變數,本論文貢獻主要在於以動態的變數-相關變數前後期的變化-為解釋變數,檢視其對老人居住安排轉換的影響。結果發現:以家庭價值觀或以交換理論解釋老人居住安排的轉換,都獲得部分支持;但沒有足夠的證據支持健康惡化或從有偶變無偶是影響老人轉換為與子女同住的關鍵因素;相反地,與交換理論相關的重大經濟決策權的改變變得比較重要,造成更可能發生轉換為不與子女同住或與子女同住。隱含著家庭價值觀對老人居住安排轉換的影響逐漸式微,而交換理論的影響力則越來越強,可彌補以家庭價值觀解釋之不足。
    本論文亦使用縱斷面調查資料,以相關變數前後期的變化為解釋變數,檢視臺灣老人從不與子女同住變成「移與子女居」及「子女回居」的影響因素。結果隱含老人正向經濟因素的轉變更可能發生「子女回居」,需要因素及負向經濟因素的轉變則更可能發生「移與子女居」,而且沒有證據足認健康狀況轉差是影響轉換為與子女同住的關鍵因素。
    有別於以往許多老人居住安排的文獻常將65歲以上的人當作一個群體,或有的橫斷面研究使用不同樣本,抑或即使以縱斷面研究亦使用不同樣本,進行老化研究,本論文利用相同樣本縱斷面研究分析老年人在初老、中老、老老階段的居住安排,回答「隨著年齡的增長,老人與子女共住的比例是呈U型或直線下降的關係?」、「老化對居住安排有何影響?」的問題。研究結果顯示隨著年齡的增長,老人與子女共住的比例呈直線下降。本論文發現一些因素在某階段有顯著影響,而在其他階段未發現有顯著影響,此即與老化有關;除此,對三個階段的居住安排均發生顯著影響的因素,其影響程度亦隨著年齡的增長而有不同,均為預測老人各階段居住安排決定的良好指標。
    本論文為檢視究竟何因素影響老人居住安排滿意與否之改變,使用縱斷面調查資料,應用人與環境一致和基本生活需求滿足之理論基礎,以動態的變數-相關變數前後期的改變-為解釋變數,檢視其影響。結果發現:以人與環境一致或基本生活需求滿足,解釋居住安排滿意與否之改變,都獲得部分支持,同時,「愛屋及烏」假說亦獲得支持。顯示居住安排滿意與否之改變,主要歸因於環境與個體間之一致及合適與否。
    總結而言,老人隨著年歲增長,居住安排從滿意變為不滿意者的比例增加,健康狀況亦呈直線下降,但不與子女同住的比例遞增,與子女同住的居住安排則呈直線下降,許多影響因素已顯示老人由家庭照護的傳統價值日漸式微。無論老人採行何種居住安排,理應以提高居住安排滿意度,提昇老人福祉為依歸。此際,除了由政府提出有效對策以為改善之外,老人宜自求多福,例如,改善居住環境、移居良好醫療環境,家庭重大決策放手由子女承擔,多多參與社交性或拜訪親友、鄰居的活動,快樂邁向成功老化。
    This dissertation, firstly, introduces the basic overview of living arrangements of the elderly in Taiwan. Then, it analyzes the transitions in living arrangements among elderly of family values and exchange theory, meanwhile, it also analyzes “moving to be with children” and “returning to the nest” from needs factors and economic factors as well as family values and exchange theory. Then, it uses a panel study to examine the living arrangements of young-old, old-old, and oldest-old. Finally, it applies a theoretical basis of person-environment congruence and basic-needs content to analyze the changes in satisfaction with living arrangements of the elderly.
    The value placed on family was often used to explain the influence on living arrangements transitions in previous literature. Yet economic factors have become important in modern society, therefore we need to use exchange theory to strengthen the explanation on transitions. This dissertation, therefore, attempts to compare these two explanations through analyzing transitions, and to examine the effects of these two viewpoints on transitions. Using a longitudinal data source, the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan, produced by the Department of Health (Taiwan) and the University of Michigan, a binomial logit model is used to observe the behavior of transitions. The contribution of this dissertation mainly lies in taking the dynamic variables, the changes of related variables between baseline and follow-up, as independent variables to examine the influence on the transitions. Empirical results show that both family value and exchange theory cause the living arrangements transitions, but lack evidence to prove that a senior’s health deterioration or the loss of a spouse was the major determinant of the transition to live with children. Contrarily, transitions of living arrangements are more likely to occur when a senior changes her/his role as the economic decision-maker into the non economic decision-maker of the household or vice versa. That implies the influence of family values on transitions is decreasing, and the influence of exchange theory is increasing.
    This dissertation also uses a longitudinal data source and takes the changes of related variables between baseline and follow-up as independent variables to examine what factors are associated with “moving to be with children” and “returning to the nest” among those living apart from children at baseline of Taiwanese seniors. Empirical results imply that “returning to the nest” is more likely to occur when a senior’s positive economic factors are changed; while “moving to be with children” is more likely to occur when a senior’s needs factors and negative economic factors are changed, and lacking evidence to prove that health deterioration was the major determinant of the transition to live with children.
    Most previous research on elderly living arrangements examined all people aged 65 and over as a whole. Some cross-sectional studies on aging employed different samples, as did some longitudinal studies. This dissertation examines the living arrangements of young-old, old-old, and oldest-old in Taiwan. A panel study was used to answer the following questions: Is the proportion of coresidence with increased age U-shaped or decreased linearly? What influence does aging have on living arrangements? Analytical results show that the proportion of coresidence decreased linearly among the same samples for the young-old, old-old, and oldest-old. Empirical results show that some factors were significant at some stages, while not significant at other stages, that is, they were affected by aging. Additionally, some factors related to living arrangements for all three age groups, and their effects differed with increased age. All of them are good indicators in predicting the determinants of elderly living arrangements for the three groups.
    This dissertation also uses a longitudinal data source, applies a theoretical basis of person-environment congruence and basic-needs content, and takes the dynamic variables, the changes in related variables between the baseline and follow-up, as independent variables to examine the determinants of changes in satisfaction with living arrangements of the elderly. Empirical results indicate that both person-environment congruence and basic-needs content partially cause changes in satisfaction with living arrangements, and the “love me, love my dog” hypothesis is also fulfilled. This dissertation suggests that changes in satisfaction with living arrangements are mainly attributed to the congruence or fit between the environment and the individual.
    Summarily, the proportion of dissatisfaction with living arrangements increases as age increases, the condition of health worsened linearly and the proportion of living with children is decreased with increased age, many factors have been implied the influence of traditional values on family care is decreasing. No matter what kind of living arrangement the elderly adopted, they should improve the living arrangement satisfaction, and enhance the welfare. At this time, beyond the improvements through effective measures of the government, the elderly should fend for themselves by improving the living environment, moving to a good medical environment, transferring the power of decision-making to children, and more involving in sociability or visiting relatives, friends and neighbors. And then they achieve successful aging happily.
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