English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 93218/123590 (75%)
Visitors : 27731437      Online Users : 882
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    政大機構典藏 > 教育學院 > 教育學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/59572
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/59572


    Title: 幼兒英語學習之家庭教育環境、 父母效能與英語學習熱情之關係
    The Relationship Among Family Educational Environment, Parental Efficacy And Preschoolers' Passion in Learning English
    Authors: 謝皓薇
    Hsieh, Hao Wei
    Contributors: 葉玉珠
    Yeh, Yu Chu
    謝皓薇
    Hsieh, Hao Wei
    Keywords: 英語學習
    學齡前幼兒
    家庭教育環境
    父母效能
    熱情
    Learning English
    Preschoolers
    Family Educational Environment
    Parental Efficacy
    Passion
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-09-02 17:27:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究旨在探討學齡前幼兒的英語學習家庭教育環境、父母效能與英語學習熱情之關係。本研究以台灣地區私立連鎖幼兒園515位大班家長為研究對象,其中包含127位男性、388位女性。研究工具包括幼兒英語學習父母效能量表、幼兒英語學習家庭教育環境量表與幼兒英語學習熱情量表。本研究採用單因子多變量變異數分析與結構方程模式分析進行資料分析。研究發現陳述如下:

    一、 以父母效能與家庭教育環境為自變項、以和諧性熱情與強迫性熱情
    為依變項所建構的路徑模式獲得支持。亦即父母效能與家庭教育環
    境互動後會透過父母效能直接影響強迫性熱情;家庭教育環境與父母效能
    互動後透過家庭教育環境會直接影響和諧性熱情;父母效能與家庭教育環
    境互動後則會透過其強迫性熱情間接影響和諧性熱情。

    二、 參與幼兒具有中上程度的英語學習父母效能、家庭教育環境及學習熱情。

    三、 父母共同陪伴學習之幼兒的父母效能、家庭教育環境與英語學習熱
    情均優於僅父親陪伴或僅母親陪伴者。

    四、 全美班之幼兒的父母效能、家庭教育環境與英語學習熱情均優於雙
    語班之幼兒。

    五、 父母親之教育程度與幼兒參與者的家庭教育環境、父母效能與英語
    學習熱情並無相關
    Abstract
    The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among preschoolers’ family educational environment, parental efficacy and passion in learning English. The participants in this study were 515 preschoolers’ parents in Taiwan. Among the participants, 127 were males and 388 were females. Moreover, the employed instruments included the Inventory of Preschoolers’ Family Educational Environment in Learning English, the Inventory of Preschoolers’ Parental efficacy in Learning English, the Inventory of Preschoolers’ Passion in Learning English. The collected data was analyzed by one-way MANOVAs and Structional Equation Modeling (SEM). The main findings of this study were as follows:
    1.The preschoolers’ family educational environment and
    parental efficacy had direct effects on their harmonious and obsessive passion; moreover, the interaction of preschoolers ’ parental efficacy and family educational environment had direct effects on their obsessive passion via parental efficacy, the interaction of preschoolers’ family educational environment and parental efficacy had direct effects on their harmonious passion via family educational environment, and preschoolers’ obsessive passion had indirect effects on their harmonious passion.

    2. The preschoolers had an above-average level of family educational environment,
    parental efficacy and passion in learning English.

    3. Preschoolers who were accompanied by both parents when learning English had stronger passion than those who were only accompanied by father or mother.

    4. Preschoolers in the No Chinese classes had stronger passion in learning English than those who were in bilingual classes.

    5. The educational backgrounds of parents were not related to preschoolers’ family educational environment, parental efficacy, and passion in learning English.
    Reference: 參考文獻

    壹、 中文部分

    王怡云(1995)。從家庭教育環境和學校環境看幼兒的同儕互動。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台灣師範大學家政教育系,臺北市。
    王英婷(2006)。高中資優生熱情樣貌之研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台灣師範大學特殊教育系,臺北市。
    王曉慧 (2000)。高雄市國小學生家庭文化環境、英語學習方法與英語學成就之相關研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立高雄師範大學,高雄市。
    王鍾和(1993)。家庭結構、父母管教方式與子女行為表現(未出版之博士論文)。國立政治大學教育學系,臺北市。
    王瓊珠(2004)。故事結構教學加分享閱讀對增進國小閱讀障礙學童讀寫能力與故事結構概念之研究。臺北市立師範學院學報,35(2),1-22。
    北市:國立台灣師範大學。
    白玉玲、王雅貞(2006)。兒童發展。臺北市: 雙葉書廊。
    余民寧(2006)。潛在變數模式: SIMPLIS 的應用。臺北市:高等教育。
    吳信鳳、張鑑如(2005)。提早於幼兒階段學習英語與後續英語, 國文成就與能力相關研究。國立政治大學英國語文學系,臺北市。
    吳國淳(譯)(1996)。踏出閱讀的第一步(原作者:Thomas Kellaghan)。臺北:五南。(原著出版年:1993)
    吳清山、林天佑(1995)。教育名辭淺詞─教育優先區。教育資料與研究,5,49。
    巫有鎰(1999)。影響國小學生學業成就的因果機制—以臺北市和台東縣作比較。教育研究集刊,7(43),213-242。
    李炯煌、季力康、彭涵妮(2007)。學習熱情量表之建構校度。體育學報,40(3),77-87。
    兒童福利聯盟網(2009)。學齡前兒童學習英語概況調查報告。

    周新富(1999)。國中生家庭背景、家庭文化資源、學校經驗與學習結果關係之研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立高雄師範大學,高雄市。
    林清江(1972)。家庭文化與教育。台灣師大教育研究所集刊,14,89-109。
    林清江(1981)。社會學新論。臺北市:五南。
    林清江(1984)。教育社會學新論。臺北市:五南。
    林慧雅(1998)。母親信念內涵及其與教養方式的關係。學生輔導通訊,59,72-85。
    林慧蓉(1999)。從年齡與動機談兒童英語學習。輯於八八年度師範學院教育學術論文(主編),論文集II。臺北市:教育部。
    林逸媛(1991)。家庭教育環境與子女創造性之相關研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立政治大學教育學系,臺北市。
    波仕特市調網(2009)。您認為幼兒從哪個階段開始學習英語的效果會最好。
    邱皓政(2003)。結構方程模式:LISREL的理論、技術與應用。臺北市:雙葉。
    金瑞芝(2000)。親子共讀圖畫書之歷程:三歲與五歲組的比較。臺北市立師範學院學報,31,193-208。
    柯華葳、游婷雅(譯)(2001)。踏出閱讀的第一步(原作者:M. S. Burns, P. Griffin,& C. E. Snow, NRC)。臺北:信誼。(原著出版年:1999)
    孫志麟(1991)。自我效能的基本概念及其在教育上的應用。教育資料與研究雙月刊,22,47-54。
    孫清山、黃毅志(1996)。補習教育、文化資本與教育取得。台灣社會學刊,19,95-139。
    袁美敏(2001)。親子一起來閱讀-讓公共圖書館成為親子共讀的補給站。書院季刊,50,1-9。
    張武昌(2006)。台灣的英語教育─現況與省思。教育資料與研究雙月刊,69,129-144。
    張春興(1989)。張氏心理學辭典。臺北市:東華。
    張春興(2001)。現代心理學。台北:東華。
    張振芬(2006)。親.親閱讀。學前教育,28(11),16-26。
    張瀞文(2002)。親子共讀魔法 DIY。臺北市:匡邦。
    張顯達(2006)。起點年齡與台灣大學生英語成就。英語教學,30 (3),75-96。
    梁茂森(1998)。國中生學習自我效能量表之編製。教育學刊,14,155-192。
    許靜芳(2005)。不同社經地位之國小學童家長之父母效能感對家長參與的影響─以彰化縣為例。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立嘉義大學家庭教育研究所,嘉義市。
    陳富美(2003)。父母親職效能感、教養行為與子女生活適應的相互影響。輯於國立台灣師範大學(主編),生命歷程中的家庭教育國際研討會論文集。臺北市:國立台灣師範大學。
    陳麗妃(2005)。TIMSS 2003 國小四年級學生背景、家庭教育環境、科學興趣、自信與科學成就關係之比較分析:以七國為例。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立新竹教育大學教育課程與教學進修部,新竹市。
    彭月茵(2007)。研究生學術動機歷程模式之建構。國立政治大學教育學系(未出版之博士論文),臺北市。
    彭美玲(1995)。臺北市國小校內團體活動兒童英語組實施現況之研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺北師範學院初等教育研究所,臺北市。
    程炳林、林清山(2000)。行動控制教學課程之教學效果研究。教育心理學報,31 (2),1-22。
    黃亙(1995)。教育心理學。臺北市:東華。
    黃芳銘(2003)。結構方程模式理論與應用。臺北市:五南。
    黃家瑩(2007)。國小高年級學生家庭閱讀環境、閱讀動機與閱讀行為之研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立高雄師範大學,高雄市。
    黃婉玲 (2005)。東南亞外籍配偶子女的家庭教育環境與學習適應情形之研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立臺北師範學院教育政策與管理研究所,臺北
    市。
    黃凱霖(1994)。父母效能感、父母參與以及子女學業成就的關係。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台灣師範大學教育系,臺北市。
    黃毅志(2002)。社會階層、社會網絡與主觀意識:台灣地區不公平的社會階層體 系之延續。臺北市:巨流。
    葉玉珠(2011)。數位學習熱情量表之發展。心理與教育測驗。中國測驗學會,
    國立台灣師範大學,臺北市。
    詹婉鈺(2006)。國民中小學教師教學熱情及其相關因素之研究。(未出版之博士論文)。國立政治大學教育學系,臺北市。
    劉唯玉(2004)。多元智慧與原住民教育研究。臺北市:五南。
    賴保禎(1994)。家庭教育環境診斷測驗。臺北市:千華。
    謝青儒(2002)。父母參與與子女性別角色概念、性格特質、幸福感及學業表現之相關研究。(未出版之碩士論文)。國立屏東教育大學教育心理與輔導研究所,屏東市。
    蘇建文(1991)。發展心理學。臺北市:心理。

    貳、 英語部分

    Ainley, M., Corrigan, M., & Richardson, N. (2005). Students, task, and emotions: Identifying the contribution of emotions to students’ reading of popular culture and popular science text. Learning and instruction, 15, 433-447.
    Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: Americans' perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum Press.
    Aron, A, Aron, E. N., & Smolan, D. (1992). Inclusion of other in the self scale and structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 596-612.
    Bandura, A, Walters, R. H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York : Holt, Rinehart.
    Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25, 729-735.
    Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 1-26.
    Bandura, A.(1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
    Baumrind,D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Children Development, 37, 887-903.
    Baunmeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2005). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In
    Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (Ed.), Handbook of positive psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Bernstein, B. (1961). Social class and linguistic development : A theory of social learning. New York: Free press.
    Bernstein, B. (1961). Social Class and Linguistic Development: A Theory of Social Learning. In A. H. Halsey et al. (Eds.), Education, economy and society (288-314). New York, NY: Free Press.
    Bloom, P. (1997). Intentionality and word learning. Trends in Cognitive Science, 1 (1).
    Bogenschneider, K., Small, S. A., & Tsay, J. C. (1997). Child, parent, and contextual influences on perceived parenting competence among parent of adolescents. Journal of Marriage and The Family, 59, 345-362.

    Boomsma, A., & Hoogland, J. J. (2001). The robustness of LISREL modeling revisited. In Cudeck, R., du Toit, S., Sorbom, D. (Eds.), Structural equation models: Present and future: A Festschrift in honor of Karl Joreskog (pp. 139-168). Chicago: Scientific Software International.
    Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture. Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Chirkov, V., Ryan, R. M., Kim, Y., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Differentiating autonomy from individualism and independence : a self-determination theory perspective on internalization of cultural orientations and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84 (1), 97-110.
    Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of language. New York: Praeger.
    Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press.
    Coleman, J.S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Coleman, P. K., & Karraker, K. H. (2000). Parenting self-efficacy among mothers of school-age children: Conceptualization, measurement, and correlates. Family Relation, 49, 13-24.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1997). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Harper Collins.
    David, L. S.et al., (1983). Early reading achievement, oral language ability, and a child’s home back ground. Australian Psychologist, 18 (1), 75-87.
    Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what’’ and “why”of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
    Dika, L. S.et al., & Singh, K. (2002). Applications of social capital in educational literature: A critical synthesis. Review of Educational Research,72 (1), 31-60.
    Donovan, W. L., Leavitt & Walsh, R. O. (1990). Illusory control and its effect on susceptibility to learned helplessness. Child Development, 61, 1638-1647.
    Fotheringham , J. B. (1981). Family socioeconomic and educational emotional characteristics as predictor of school achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 75 (1), 312-307.
    Frijda, N. H., Mesquita, B., Sonnemans, J., & Van Goozen, S. (1991). The duration of affective phenomena or emotions, sentiments and passions. In K. T. Strongman (Ed.), International review of studies on emotion Vol.1.(pp. 187-225). New York: Wiley.
    Gable, S. L., & Haidt, J. (2005). What (and why) is positive psychology? Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 103-110.
    Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E.(1972). Review of attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Language Learning. Language Learning, 23(1), 145-149.
    Gardner, R.C.(1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
    Guay., F., Senécal, C., Gauthier, L., & Fernet, C. (2003). Predicting career indecision : a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 165-177.
    Harackiewicz, J.(1979). The effects of reward contingency and performance feedback on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1352-1363.
    Hearn (1984). The relative roles of Academic, Ascribed, and socioeconomic characteristics in college destinations. Sociology of Educational , 57, 22-30.
    Henderson, R. W.et al., (1972). Development and validation of the Henderson environmental learning process scale. The Journal of Social Psychology, 88, 185-196.
    Hoover- Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97, 310-331.
    Hoover- Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involve in children’s education? Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 3-42. EJ548327.
    Hoover- Dempsey, K.V., Bassler, O.C., & Brissie, J.S. (1992). Pare Explorations in parent- school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 287-294.
    Hoover- Dempsey, K.V., Bassler, O.C., & Burrow, R. (1995). Parents’ reported involvement in students’ homework: Strategies and practice. Elementary School Journal, 95, 435-450.
    Iruka, I.U. (2005). Parent self-efficacy: relationship with parent involvement and preschoolers’ school readiness. Miami: Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.
    Kalmijin. M. (1994). Mother’s occupational status and children’s schooling. American Social Review, 59, 257-275.
    King, L. A., Hicks, J. A., Krull, J. L., & Del Gaiso, A. K. (2006). Positive affect and the experience of meaning in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(10), 179-196.
    Kline, R. B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York:
    Guilford Press.
    Kolberg, L. (1969). Stage and Sequence: The cognitive developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research, 325-480. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Kram, K.E. (1985). Mentoring at work: Evelopmental relationships in organizational life. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Krashen, S. D. (1981).Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford, Pergamon Press.
    Lenneberg, E. H.(1967). Biological foundations of language. NY: Wiley.
    Maccoby, E. E. (1984). Socialization and developmental change. Child Development, 55, 317-328.
    Marjoribanks, K. (1972). Environment, social class, and mental abilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63(2), 103-109.
    Mary, A. (2006). Connecting with learning: motivation, affect and cognition in interest processes. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 391-405.
    Mash, E. J., & Johnson, C. H. (1983). Parental perceptions of child behavior problems, parenting self-esteem, and mothers’ reported stress in younger and older hyperactive and normal children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 86-99.
    Owens, R. (1996). Language development: An introduction.MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Pelletier, J., & Brent, J. M. (2002). Parent participation in children’s school readiness: The effects of parental self-efficacy, cultural diversity and teacher strategies. International Journal of Early Childhood,34(1), 45-66.
    Penfield, W.; Roberts L. (1959). Speech and brain mechanisms. Princeton: Princeton University Press
    Piaget, J. (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books.
    Ratelle, C. F., Vallerand, R. J., Mageau, G. A., Rousseau, F. L., &Provencher, P.
    (2004). When passion leads to problematic outcomes: A look at gambling. Journal of gambling studies, 20(2), 105-119.
    Reeve, J., Nix, G., & Hamm, D. (2003). Testing models of the experience of self-determination in intrinsic motivation and the conundrum of choice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 375-392.
    Rousseau, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Rarelle, C. F., Nageau, G. A., & Provencher, P. J. (2002). Passion and gambling: on the validation of the gambling passion (GPS). Journal of Gambling Studies,18(1), 45-66.
    Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-69.
    Scandura, T. A. (1992). Mentorship and career mobility: An emporocal investigation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 169-174.
    Séguin-Lévesque, Chantal, Laliberte, Marie Lyne N., Pelletier, Luc G. (2003). Harmonious and obsessive passion for the internet: Their associations with the couple’srelationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(1), 197-221.
    Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The Handbook of positive psychology ( 3-9). London: Oxford University Press.
    Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi & M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psyschologist, 55, 5-14.
    Skitch, S. A., & Hodgins, D. C. (2005). A passion for the game: Problem gambling and passion among university students. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 37(3), 193-197.
    Snow, R. E., Corno, L., & Jackson Ⅲ, D. (1996). Individual differences in affective and conative functions. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 243-310). New York: Macmillan.
    Snyder, C. R., Lehman, K. A., Kluck, B., & Monsson, Y. (2006). Hope for rehabilitation and vice versa. Rehabilitation psychology, 51(2), 89-112.
    Standge, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2003). Positive A model of contextual
    motivation in physical education: using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal theories to predict physical activity intentions. An Journal of Educational Psychology , 95(1), 97-110.
    Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T.I.(1995).Defying the crowd: Cultivating creavitity in aculture of conformity. New York: Free press.
    Talley, R. C. (1996). Excellence, relevance, and passion: the motive power for indispensability. In: Making Psychologists in Schools Indispensable: Critical Questions and Emerging Perspectives. Greensboro, NC. ERIC Counseling and Student Services Clearinghouse, 35-39.
    Teachman D. J. (1987). Family Background , Educational Resource , and Educational Attainment. American Sociological Review 52.
    Teti ,D. M., & Gelfand, D. M. (1991). Behavioral competence among mothers of infants inthe first year: The mediational role of maternal self-efficacy. Child Development, 62,918-929.
    Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Leonard, M., Gagne, M., & Marsolais, J. (2003). Les passion de 1’Ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Ssocial Psychology, 85(4), 756-767.
    Vallerand, R. J., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A. J., Dumais, A., Demers, M. A., & Rousseau,
    F.(2008). Passion and performance attainment in sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 9, 373-392.
    Vallerand, R. J., Rousseau, F. L., Grouzet, F. M. E., Dumais, A., Grenier, S., &
    Blanchard, C. M.(2006). Passion in sport: A Look at determinants and affective experiences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28(4), 454-478.
    Vygotsky, L. (1962). Thought and language. MA: MIT Press.
    Watkins, T. J. (1997). Teacher communications, child achievement, and parent traits inparent involvement models. Journal of Educational Research, 91(1), 3-14.
    Wells-Parker, E., Miller, D.L., & Topping, S. (1990). Development of control of outcome scales and self-efficacy scales for women in four life roles. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54, 564-575.
    Wilson, B. G. (1995). Metaphors for instruction: Why we talk about learning
    environment. Educational Technology, 35(5), 25-30.
    Wiseman, S. (1971). Education and environment. London: Manchester University Press.
    Wong, R. S. (1998). Multidimensional Influences of Family Environment in Education: The Case of socialist Czechoslovakia. Sociology of Education,71, 1-22.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    教育研究所
    100152012
    101
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1001520121
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[教育學系] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File SizeFormat
    012101.pdf1817KbAdobe PDF476View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback