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    Title: 非政府組織與女性議題:以尼泊爾販運婦女為例
    Non-governmental organizations and women issue- the case study of trafficking in women in Nepal
    Authors: 周欣瑋
    Contributors: 姜家雄
    周欣瑋
    Keywords: 非政府組織
    尼泊爾
    販運
    婦女
    Non-governmental organizations
    Nepal
    trafficking
    women
    CeLLRd
    Maiti Nepal
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2013-09-03 13:45:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 過去十年間南亞—尤其是尼泊爾—販運婦女與兒童議題不論在國家或國際領域,都受到詳盡的討論。貧窮、識字率、失業率和對婦女與兒童歧視等問題皆被提出為可能的原因,部份國家反販運計畫方案也在政府和NGO部門之下發展與實施,且已達到可觀的進展。由政府和NGO部門所採取的舉措促進釐清許多此議題的相關概念。這亦有助於將聚焦在婦女及其移動性、性工作的反販運行動轉移至更臻成熟的觀點,包括販運男性與兒童以及各種目的的販運行為。持續的倡議導致形成對抗商業性剝削販運婦女與兒童的區域性公約,最為人所知的乃南亞區域合作聯盟販運公約(South Asian Alliance for Regional Cooperation Convention against Trafficking)。幾乎所有南亞國家皆漸漸認可此議題應受到關注,尼泊爾和孟加拉甚至發展出一套打擊「性剝削目的的婦女與兒童販運」的國家計畫。
    雖然人口販運在尼泊爾並不是一個新現象,但是1990年之後才被提出討論。婦女團體提出在性產業中遭販運婦女的議題,爾後才得到人權團體的支持。 儘管國家針對反販運行動實施配套計畫,但過去六年,政府並未成功地為販運婦女的形態帶來任何重大改變或對遭販運者提供援助。因此非政府組織成為主要行為者:本文將討論尼泊爾販運婦女的問題與現況,以及非政府組織是如何以一個非國家行為者的角色著手販運議題。
    International and national trafficking in women and children in southern Asia, especially in Nepal has been discussed explicitly during last ten years.
    Poverty, literacy, rate of unemployment, and discrimination against women and children are all possible factors. The anti trafficking programmes of some countries are conducted under the governments and NGO sectors, and reach to some extent of progress. The government and NGO leading action help forward rectifying many related concepts of this issue. This is also helpful to focus on the shift from women and the anti trafficking action of their mobility and sex work to mature viewpoint of trafficking including trafficking in men and children. Sustaining advocacy leads to a regional convention against exploiting and trafficking in women and children, the most well-known one is “South Asian Alliance for Regional Cooperation Convention against Trafficking”, which gradually made almost all southern Asia countries approve of the importance of the issue. Nepal and Bangladesh even develop a programme against “exploitative trafficking in women and children.”
    Trafficking in human is not a new phenomenon in Nepal, but it was addressed and discussed after 1990s. Women groups addressed the problem of trafficking women in sex industry and then the issue were supported by human rights organizations. The states implement sets of programmes against anti trafficking, in the last six years, governments did not bring any important change to the forms of trafficking women and did not offer supports to trafficked ones, so the NGOs became the primary actor. This article will discuss the problem and present status of trafficking in women in Nepal, and how NGOs as a non-state actor do with the trafficking issue.
    Reference: 一、中文
    (一)專書
    王振軒。《非政府組織議題與發展》。台北:鼎茂圖書,2005。
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    行政院研究發展考核委員會編著。《我國與國際非政府組織發展關係之研究》。台北:政府出版品展售中心,1993。
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    聯合國婦女發展基金會報告, 2006。
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    Brinkerhoff, Jennifer M., Stephen C. Smith, and Hildy Teegen, ed. NGOs and the Millennium Development Goals. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2007.

    Caagusan, F. ed. Halfway Trough the Circle: The Loves of Eight Filipino survivors of Prostitution and Sex Trafficking. Manila: WEDPRO, 1998.

    Deepa, Narayan. ed. Empowerment and Poverty Reduction: A Sourcebook. Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002.

    Esim, Simel and Monica Smith, eds. Gender and Migration in Arab States: The Case of Domestic Workers. ILO, Beirut, 2004.

    Farr, Kathryn. Sex Trafficking: The Global Market in Women and Children. New York: Worth Publishers, 2005.

    Fernando, Jude L. and Alan W. Heston, eds. The role of NGOs: charity and empowerment. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Periodicals Press, 1997.

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    Hynes, H. Patricia and Janice G. Raymond. “Put in harm’s way: The Neglected Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking in the United States.” In Policing the National Body: Sex, Race, and Criminalization, ed. Jael Silliman and Anannya Bhattacharjee.

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    Mehra, Rekha. “Women, Empowerment, and Economic Development,” In The Roles of NGOs: Charity and Empowerment. ed. Fernando, Jude L. and Heston, Alan W. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Periodicals Press, 1997.

    Mehra, Rekha. Women, Land, and Sustainable Development. Washington, DC: International Center for Research on Women, 1995.

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    Zlotnik, Hania. “International Migrant Policies and the Status of Female Migrants.” International Migration Review, 24 (Summer, 1990). Special Issue: Labor Recruiting Organizations in the Developing World, 372.


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    四、相關網站
    (一)中文
    中國人口信息網,http://www.cpirc.org.cn/yjwx/yjwx_detail.asp?id=3318。
    婦女聯合網站, http://www.wrp.org.tw 。
    〈婦女與教育〉,http://www.un.org/chinese/esa/women/education.htm 。
    婦女觀察(Women Watch),http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ 。
    美國在台協會,http://www.ait.org.tw/zh/officialtext-bg0404.html。
    現代婦女基金會網站(Modern Women’s Foundation), http://www.38.org.tw/。
    聯合國婦女問題網站,http://www.un.org/chinese/esa/women/ 。
    聯合國千禧年發展目標官方網站,http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Home.aaspx 。
    聯合國千禧年目標全球行動,http://www.un.org/chinese/millenniumgoals/unsystem/index.htm。
    聯合國千禧年發展目標統計資料,
    http://www.un.org/chinese/millenniumgoals/stats.shtml。
    聯合國婦女發展基金會(United Nations Development Fund for Women ,UNIFEM), http://www.unifem.org/ 。

    聯合國〈經社理事會高級別會議鼓勵在婦女賦權方面採取行動〉, http://www.un.org/zh/development/desa/news/ecosoc/womens-philantrophy.shtml

    國際特赦組織台灣總會(Amnesty InternationalTaiwan) http://www.aitaiwan.org.tw/。

    總統府性別主流化諮詢顧問小組會議專題報告。參考網址:http://www.president.gov.tw/2_special/mainstream/subject8-15.html#1。瀏覽日期:2009年1月4日。

    (二)英文
    Apne Aap. http://www.apneaap.org/
    APEC-Gender Focal Point Network. http://www.apec.org/apec/apec_groups/som_committee_on_economic/som_special_task_groups/gender_focal_point_network.html
    CARITAS Nepal. http://www.caritasnepal.org/eng/index.php
    Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Center. www.cwin.org.np/
    CeLRRd. http://www.celrrd.org/
    E4conference, Engendering Empowerment: Education and Equality conferences. http://www.e4conference.org/
    IMADR’s Website. http://www.imadr.org/
    Maiti Nepal. http://www.maitinepal.org/index.php
    Mundos de Mujeres/Women´s Worlds 2008. http://www.mmww08.org/index.cfm
    The Commission on the Status of Women. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/
    International Labour Organization(ILO) Partnerships and Development Cooperation Department. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/pardev/
    The NGO Committee on the Status of Women, NY.
    http://www.ngocsw.org/en/main
    WEXPO: Women's Online Marketplace. http://www.globewomen2.com/
    Women’s Environment and Development Organization(WEDO). http://www.wedo.org/
    World Summit on the Information Society(WSIS) Gender Caucus. http://www.genderwsis.org/
    UN Declarations and Conventions Contained in GA Resolutions. http://www.un.org/documents/instruments/docs_en.asp?type=conven
    UNIFEM and Millennium development goals. http://www.unifem.org/gender_issues/millennium_development_goals/
    http://www.unifem.org/gender_issues/violence_against_women/
    UN data. http://data.un.org/
    Description: 碩士
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    99
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0095253012
    Data Type: thesis
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