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    Title: 從科技契合歷程探討電子化政府發展的轉型:以台灣跨機關整合服務為例
    The transformation of e-government development: insights from the technology alignment process-case studies of integrated public services in Taiwan
    Authors: 程麗弘
    Cheng, Li hung
    Contributors: 溫肇東
    Wen, Chao tung
    程麗弘
    Cheng, Li hung
    Keywords: 電子化政府
    跨組織關係
    科技契合歷程
    交引纏繞式轉型
    公共服務價值
    e-government
    inter-organizational relationship
    technology alignment
    entanglement
    value of public service
    Date: 2010
    Issue Date: 2013-09-04 11:56:44 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 政府組織導入資訊科技後,帶來進步與改變的契機。過去研究從發展階段論探討此議題,多預設科技會依獨立自主的邏輯發展而對社會造成衝擊,因此主要的管理工作是協助社會大眾適應不可逆轉的科技發展。然而,這些學理上的臆測,在田野真實性是愈往發展後期愈下降,造成理論與實務的脫節。本研究從科技與社會研究(Science, Technology and Society, STS)學術脈絡下手,從實務觀察中,致力於挖掘科技和社會間雙向互動、相互形塑的關係;並主張以契合式纏繞(aligned-entanglement) 觀點,探討科技與政府組織相互形塑呈現出轉型的動態歷程。
    本研究援引交引纏繞式(entanglement model)互動的模型,加上科技契合(technology alignment)觀點,應用於電子化政府整合型服務之研究,以解釋為何纏繞產生非預期結果,以致走向轉型。因為資訊科技特性需連結兩個以上組織才可讓資訊跨組織流通,所以科技與組織互動的轉型態樣有別於以往單一組織與科技互動的態樣。本研究在分析架構上的貢獻有三:1. 提出以科技契合的交引纏繞歷程觀點探討轉型,修正及補強以交引纏繞歷程觀點來分析轉型,2.開發出探討跨組織科技契合的分析構面,抽離出田野背後的運作邏輯, 3.重新詮釋公共服務的創新擴散,將以往僅探討科技創新與採用的關係,再行深入,把科技設計者從科技創新分離出,成為探討科技設計者、科技創新以及採用的關係, 由此進一步剖析當科技展演無效而發生轉型現象的論述。
    本研究根據此看法,採質性多個案研究法來分析台灣電子化政府發展中兩個整合型公共服務,分別是「農產品產銷履歷系統」以及「G2G2B公文電子交換系統」,探討社會/科技集體從萌生到關係穩定化的歷程,或是位移如何發生,由此探知轉型過程。研究發現四種交引纏繞樣態皆有可能導致社會/科技集體的轉型,分別是「科技誤用,對服務真諦不了解」、「科技挪用,妥協下的次佳選擇」、「科技不適用,未立即傳遞的服務」以及「科技不用/科技調適,端視服務內容可被替代程度而定」四個纏繞軌跡的樣態。其共同特點是剛開始科技與跨組織各要素是契合的,雖偶有不契合也多以微調方式修正即可;但是逐漸在各執行面都有一些偏差,在科技展演無效後,科技設計者在權衡情境後所採取的解決方案,進一步呈現出可能的解釋因素,分別是對「科技精神」的了解程度、設計者對環境變化的認知、或科技特性在特定歷史環境不易充分發揮、或是對服務真諦的了解程度等。
    本研究提出契合式纏繞觀點,相信這樣的研究成果會深化電子化政府轉型式發展的分析。本研究建議,在無效科技展演後,要預留迴旋空間(leeway)重新開啟科技的詮釋,允許不僅檢討「進度」達成與否,更要檢討「目標」是否合適,如此該社會/科技集體的纏繞式轉型才較不會走偏。
    The implementation of information technology by government entities brings opportunities for progress and change. The conventional wisdom of technology determinism considers the development of e-government as irreversible and the key objective is to assimilate the users to adopt the technology. However, these theoretical speculations tend to lose their explanation power during the later stages of e-government deployment. In other words, there is a mismatch between theory and practice.
    This study argues that the adoption of technology in governmental organizations is a result of interactions amongst factors such as strategic alignment, IT alignment, IT-structural and process alignment, business alignment, and service alignment. This study illustrates the dynamic entangled process in offering integrated services for e-government and describes the trajectories of this transformation. The aligned-entanglement perspective is then used to provide a better explanation than the punctuated-equilibrium and situated change perspectives.
    Three main contributions are made by this thesis. First, it proposes a new model to explore governmental organizational transformation. Second, it develops an analytical framework and makes explicit the operation logics of field practice. Thirdly, it re-interprets the diffusion of innovation in public services by incorporating technology designers, the technology itself, and the adopters as distinct actors in the transformation process.
    Qualitative case study method is used to analyze the implementation of two integrated public e-services in Taiwan: “Agriculture and Food Traceability System” and “G2G2B Electronic Document Exchange System”. The field studies show how the social/technical collective becomes stabilized overtime or how displacement occurs. This paper finds four patterns of displacement: misuse of technology through lack of understanding, the inappropriation of technology, the inapplicability of technology resulting in non-usage, and resistance or adaptation depending on suitability to the adopter’s tasks at hand. The common theme of these patterns is that, while minor misalignment can be fine-tuned in the beginning, these misalignments tend to accumulate through out the execution phases resulting in ineffective performance outcomes. Furthermore, the choices of technology designers to remedy these issues shed light on issues influencing the outcome; namely, misunderstanding of “technology spirit”, designers’ lack of sensitivity to environment change, the poor fit of technology features given its contemporary government context, and lack of understanding on the essence of services.
    This study proposes aligned-entanglement perspective and enriches the understanding of transformation in e-government development. This study suggests that, upon ineffective performances in technology, one should make leeway in the calibration of the deployment. By assessing the appropriateness of the initial goals in addition to reviewing progress milestones achievement, the social/technical collective is less likely to go down the wrong path in this (transformation) process.
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    112. Zhang, J., Dawes, S., and Sarkis, J. (2005). Exploring stakeholders’ expectations of the benefits and barriers of e-government knowledge sharing. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 548-567.
    二、中文部分
    1. 王良原 (2009)。《農產品產銷履歷制度推動之調查及分析計畫》。台北市:行政院農委會。
    2. 王美雅(2005)。《概念型創新的動態擴散歷程:複雜理論觀點》。國立政治大學科技管理研究所博士論文,未出版,台北市。
    3. 艾傑頓(Edgerton, D.) (2004)。<從創新到使用:十道兼容並蓄的技術史史學提綱>。《科技渴望性別》,吳嘉苓、傅大為、雷祥麟編,頁131-170。台北市:群學。
    4. 江明修(2004)。《運用資訊與通訊科技實現「全民參政理想」之規劃研究》, 台北市:資訊工業策進會。
    5. 行政院研考會( 2002)。《電子化政府報告書》。台北市: 行政院研考會。
    6. 行政院研考會(2004)。《電子化政府》。台北市: 紅螞蟻。
    7. 行政院研考會(2010)。《電子治理成效指標與評估:G2G與G2》。台北市:行政院研考會。
    8. 行政院研考會(2010)。《電子化政府報告》。台北市:行政院研考會。
    9. 行政院農委會(2009)。《「精緻農業健康卓越方案」行動計畫》。台北市:行政院農委會。
    10. 宋餘俠(2008)。 《電子化政府實踐與研究》。 台北市: 孫運璿基金會。
    11. 吳思華 (2000)。策略九說。台北市:臉譜。
    12. 拉圖, 布魯諾 (Bruno Latour) (2004)。 <直線進步或交引纏繞?人類文明長程演化的兩個模>。《科技渴望社會》,吳嘉苓、傅大為及雷祥麟主編。台北市:群學。
    13. 休斯(Hughes, T.) (2004) 。<美國的電氣化過程:系統建構者>。《科技渴望社會》,吳嘉苓、傅大為、雷祥麟等主編。台北市:群學。
    14. 周宣光及曾德宜(2008)。<Web 2.0與政府部門資訊應用創新>。《研考雙月刊》,第32卷第1期,頁19-27。
    15. 林東清(2008)。 《資訊管理》。台北市: 智勝。
    16. 林文源 (2006)。<漂移之作本體論:由血液透析病患的存在與行動談社會本體論>,台灣社會學,第十二期。
    17. 柯特勒(Kotler P.) (2003)。《行銷管理學》。方世榮譯。台北市:東華。
    18. 彭台光、高月慈、林鉦琴(2006)。<管理研究中的共同方法變異:問題本質、影響、測試和補救>。管理學報,第23卷第1期,頁77-98。
    19. 孫百佑( 2003)。 英國電子化政府Gov-Talk參訪報告(行政院及所屬各機關出國報告)。台北市:行政院研考會。
    20. 郭月娥(2006)。韓國與日本電子化政府考察報告(行政院及所屬各機關出國報告)。台北市:行政院研考會。
    21. 陳信宏(2006)。《理解科技的後採用困難:實務契合度觀點的質化研究》。政治大學資訊管理系博士論文,未出版,台北市。
    22. 陳祈睿(2008)。<我國推動農產品產銷履歷之執行成果>。農政與農情,二月。
    23. 陳武雄 (2011)。<推動與國際接軌之農產品產銷履歷制度>。農政與農情,五月。
    24. 黃東益(2009)。《電子治理成效指標與評估:G2C與G2B》。台北市:電子治理研究中心報告。
    25. 曾冠球 (2008)。<資訊科技與官僚制度:虛擬政府的辨證>。台灣民主季刊,第五卷第三期,頁 203-209。
    26. 鄒鴻泰 (2008)。《公司間共同發展能力對電子化服務創新之影響》。元智大學管理研究所博士論文,未出版,桃園中壢市。
    27. 楊弘任 (2010)。「川流發電」的綠能技術行動網絡。論文發表於台灣科技與社會第二屆年會,台北市。
    28. 羅吉斯(Rogers, E.) (2006)。《創新的擴散》。唐錦超譯。台北市:遠流。
    29. 蕭瑞麟(2008)。 《科技創新與組織變革》。 台北市: 麥格羅希爾。
    30. 經濟部商業司(2007)。《企業e幫手計畫》。台北市:經濟部。
    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    91359506
    99
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0913595061
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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