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|Other Titles: ||Gender and Employment: Prospects and Reflections~Critical Analysis on Part-time Policy, Child Care Policy and Glass Ceiling Phenomenon~|
female employment rights;part-time work;child care;glass ceiling effect
|Issue Date: ||2013-09-30 17:35:23 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||這些年來經濟結構轉型，服務業的擴張，提高了女性的就業機會，台灣婦女勞動參與率逐漸逼近50%，同時就業權益也因相關法令的實施，而逐步受到更多的保障。婦女勞動權益進展的過程中，國際社會進步思潮的引進與國內婦女團體的努力是重要的催化因素，因此婦女勞動權益的法制化，成績斐然，有目共睹。不過仍有部分政策，仍存在相當的疑慮，需要史審慎的討論。本篇短文即以部分時間工作、育兒照顧政策及玻璃天花板現象為討論分析的焦點。 部分時間工作的提倡，向來是婦女就業促進政策中的重要方向，然而部分時間工作普遍缺乏合理勞動條件與社會保障的情況，特別需要政策關注，否則將女性導入部分時間工作，不僅嚴重影響婦女勞動權益，也無助於改善女性在傳統性別規範下的依賴處境。因而政策當務之急應是協助解決女性家庭照顧責任，讓女性勞動生產力得以解放，而非為了兼顧家庭與工作，被迫從事部分時間工作。 至於育兒照顧政策，長久以來被認為與婦女勞動參與關係密切，「性別工作平等法」規定的「育嬰假」與「育嬰津貼」，只不過是兒童照顧政策中的一個環節，政策更要努力的方向是托育公共化，及鼓勵企業提供「友善職場方案」，讓受雇者工作無後顧之憂。 玻璃天花板現象，呈現出來的是女性在決策高位上的「低度代表」問題，這個現象的存在與傳統性別角色規範密切相關，也因此表面上似乎是女性「自我設限」的結果，但「自我設限」背後的性別角色規範實是史值得關注的焦點。女性被排拒在決策階層的後果，是企業錯失女性人才，影響所及不僅是企業生產力的直接損失，史影響企業調整因應快速變遷之市場的能力。國際社會目前共識是要打破女性所面臨的「玻璃天花板現象」，工作組織勢必要有重大轉型，傳統組織便宜行事的作風與習慣，必須要調整。|
Taiwan's economic restructuring during the past decades brings forth the expansion of services industries which open up employment opportunities for female workers whose labor force participation rate as a result is approaching 50%. Female workers' rights were much enhanced and well recognized after gender-related labor legislations and policies were implemented. But there are some polices that still need to be further discussed and reviewed. This article therefore takes the following three policies into examination, namely part-time policy, child care policy and glass ceiling phenomenon. Part-time work policy has been a major focus of female employment promotion policy. However, the demeaning labor conditions and lack of social protection that part-time workers face not only hamper female workers' rights, but also can hardly improve women's dependency status. A lot of women are forced to take part-time jobs because of family care burden. As a result, if labor conditions stay unfavorable and care burden is still regarded as women's responsibility, part-time work policy can only exacerbate female workers situation. As to child care policy, since it was closely related to female workers' employment, a well instituted child care system is highly expected. However the parental leave and parental benefits as specified in the law should not be accorded with too much expectation. Therefore the policy priority is to build up a social support system including child care system so that care burden of female workers could be released and their productivity further enhanced. Glass ceiling phenomenon indicates female under-representation in decision making position. The exclusion of female talents in the leadership tier, as researches pointed out, has negative impact in enterprise's adaptation to the new era of globalization in which market competition becomes fierce. Major international organizations have reached a consensus that in order to break through this ceiling, work organizations have to undergo major changes along with its practices and rules.
|Relation: ||研考雙月刊, 32(4), 54-66|
|Data Type: ||article|
|Appears in Collections:||[勞工研究所] 期刊論文|
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