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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/61325


    Title: 國恥、國魂與「我四萬萬同胞」: 近代中國集體榮辱意識和人口想像的形塑與效應
    Other Titles: The “Four Hundred Millions” Discourse/Imagination of the Nation in Modern China
    Authors: 楊瑞松
    Yang, Jui-sung
    Contributors: 國立政治大學歷史學系
    Keywords: 四萬萬人;同胞;散沙;五族;梁啟超
    Four Hundred Millions;Compatriots;Loose Sand;Five Peoples;Liang Qichao
    Date: 2012
    Issue Date: 2013-10-11 15:29:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要探討「四萬萬人」如何在近代中國從一個人口數
    字,卻漸次演化成為近代中國的國族符號的歷史過程及其意
    義。經由晚清時期的維新思想的運用,尤其是康有為和梁啟
    超二者論述的催生下,此「數字化」的描述晚清中國人口的
    方式,配合所謂「同胞」的血緣親屬想像符號,形塑出具有
    高度同質性意涵的國族認同。「四萬萬」人口符號同時也標
    示中國作為國族國家,脫離傳統天下秩序的新世界觀的重要
    轉變。但另一方面,為了強烈激發國族意識,四萬萬的國族
    想像也經常以全盤負面形象如「四萬萬禽獸」的意象出現。
    最後,本文也檢討此種人口想像模式和其它近代中國人口想
    像意象,例如「一盤散沙」、「五族共和」等彼此之間的矛
    盾和潛在緊張性。不斷出現在近代中國語境的「四萬萬人」
    符號,不僅扮演如B. Anderson 所描述的限定國族國家邊界
    意識的重要角色,更是長期以來已經很「自然」地嵌入近代
    中國日常生活國族意識中。藉由去自然化此現象和歷史化此
    符號,詳細地分析比較各類有關運用「四萬萬」符號的文
    本,本研究試圖更清楚地解析「四萬萬人」符號產生的歷史
    過程,以及發揮了哪些想像的力量從而形塑了近代中國國族
    認同的特定風貌。
    My research aims to analyze the historical process
    and significance of how the term ’Four Hundred
    Millions,’ originally a plain description of the
    Qing population, has gradually become widely utilized
    by many people as a national symbol of modern China.
    Thanks to the late Qing reform thinking, especially
    the discourses of Kang Yowei and Liang Qichao,
    the ’digitalized’ way of depicting the population
    size of Qing China, together with the use of the
    term ’Compatriot,’ came to shape a highly
    homogeneous national identity of modern China. This
    symbol also indicates the important transition of
    China transforming into a nation-state from a
    traditional empire. However, on the other hand, this
    symbol has also been constantly appropriated to
    construct negative national identities, such
    as ’Four Hundred Million Animals,’ in order to
    shame China into becoming a true nation. And since
    the ’Four Hundred Millions’ discourse is also
    often paralleled to other famous collective
    images/symbols, such as ’a heap of loose sand’
    and ’republic of five peoples,’ my study has tried
    to reflect on the complicated relationship and
    tension between these symbols as well. The symbolic
    power of ’Four Hundred Millions’ not only performs
    the function of setting the ’boundary’ of modern
    Chinese nation against other nations, a function that
    has been analyzed by B. Anderson, but also has
    become ’naturally’ embedded in the banal
    nationalism of modern China. By ’denaturalizing’
    this phenomenon and historicizing this symbol by
    means of analyzing and comparing painstakingly a
    variety of texts which utilize this symbol, my study
    has tried to further our understanding of the
    historical formation and the significance of the
    symbolic power of ’Four-Hundred Millions’ in the
    construction of modern Chinese identity.
    Relation: 執行期間:10008-10107
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 國科會研究計畫

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