Technology integration is inﬂuenced by many factors related to the teacher and the school environment. While many studies have examined factors that inﬂuence teachers' use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at the teacher level, a growing number of studies have suggested that it is beneﬁcial to examine those factors using multilevel modeling. Multilevel analysis can separate the impact of teachers from the school environment and provide insight into the inﬂuence of those factors at each level. This study uses multilevel modeling to analyze data from 3,652 grade 1–9 teachers in 289 schools in Taiwan. The results of this multilevel analysis found both teacher-level and school-level factors contributing to the integration of ICT in the teaching process. Among teacher level factors, teachers’ beliefs and hours of training in the previous year predicted ICT integration proﬁciency well. Among school level factors, training hours and teachers’ perceived school support are the most important factors that impact ICT integration. School support is not only a signiﬁcant factor at the school level but also a strong predictor at the teacher level. In addition, important school level variables included access to Internet connectivity, availability of projectors, and stability of computers. These results highlight the importance of individul teachers and the role schools play in ICT integration.
Educational Technology Research & Development, 61(1), 25-50