3歲的幼兒在分類卡片時，即使被告知改變分類向度，仍傾向重複向度改變前的規則。本研究以圖形熟悉度和命名方式探討幼兒在分類情境中無法行使規則轉換的原因。在所有實驗中，幼兒先使用一個規則分類卡片，接著被告知用第二個規則分類卡片。實驗一首先檢視本研究翻譯的中文版向度改變卡片分類作業（Zelazo, 2006），是否反映國內幼兒在向度轉換的發展差異。與國外的研究發現一致：相較於2或3歲的幼兒，只有4歲幼兒彈性地轉換分類規則。實驗二A和二B以墨漬圖形減弱刺激的熟悉度，不同的是實驗二A採用概括命名說明轉換前的規則，實驗二B採用兒童給予墨漬圖形的命名名稱。實驗二C沿用標準版的熟悉圖形，但以概括命名說明轉換前的規則。結果發現：只有在概括命名的墨漬情境下，3歲幼兒能行使規則轉換。這項研究結果顯示刺激的視覺訊息和指導語的語音訊息，皆可能影響幼兒在分類作業的規則轉換。 It has been well-documented that 3-year-olds perseverate by continuing to sort pictures on cards by using one rule when they are instructed to change the rule from one dimension to another. In this study, we delineated the influences of stimulus familiarity and labeling on children’s abilities to sort between dimensions. In Experiment 1, we tested a sample of Taiwanese children aged 2, 3, and 4 years by using a Chinese version of the dimensional change card sorting task (Zelazo, 2006). Similar to previous findings from Western countries, the results showed that only 4-year-olds switched to sorting by a new rule. In Experiment 2A, cards had unfamiliar shapes (inkblots) and were labeled with a generic term ("thing") when stating the first rule. In Experiment 2B, cards were labeled with familiar names that children used to describe the cards themselves. In Experiment 2C, cards had familiar shapes but were labeled with a generic term on the first sorting dimension. The results showed that 3-year-olds were capable of extradimensional shifts only in Experiment 2A. The pattern of findings suggests that both visual and verbal inputs influence children's cognitive flexibility in cardsorting tasks.