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    Title: 社會╱創新如何可能?一種塔德式的理解
    Other Titles: A Tardean Perspective on Social/Innovations
    Authors: 陳宗文
    Chen,Tzung-Wen
    Contributors: 社會系
    Keywords: 創新;社會創新;塔德;模仿律;社會律
    innovation;social innovation;Gabriel Tarde;Laws of imitation;social laws
    Date: 2012.06
    Issue Date: 2013-12-13 17:27:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 創新是一個世紀以前法國社會學家塔德(Gabriel Tarde)關心的社會現象之一,也因為他對此現象的相關討論,發展出塔德式(tardean)社會學。在社會學奠基的年代,涂爾幹以社會學主體性的立場,加上其所處之正統學術地位,將塔德跨學科的主張擠出主流傳統,也一併邊緣化創新的社會學研究。本論文以塔德的社會學基本理念為基礎,重新檢驗創新的本質與現象。依據塔德所提出的社會律與經濟心理學,社會是基於個人及個體之間的互動而生。對社會的理解,必須進入跨心智介面的層次,即塔德所謂的腦際互動與心際心理學,而以信念與欲望的傳遞為社會關係的基本單元。創新實則信念與欲望的改變。據此,創新不僅是社會基本現象,也是社會變化的條件,以致於社會可以常態性地同時承繼過往並不斷分化。根據塔德式創新理念,晚近一些對於創新的理論或有重新檢討之必要,特別是針對創新的治理,以及企圖區辨經濟與社會創新的作法等。
    Innovation is one of the major issues that Gabriel Tarde concerned in developing his general sociology more than a century ago. However, the fruit of Tarde's efforts upon this subject was ignored for quite a long time since his academic rival Durkheim gaining orthodox status of the sociological discipline. This paper is aimed at rediscovering Tardean sociology, or Tarde's point of view about society, and making connections with current studies of innovations. Tarde rejects Durkheim's abstract concept that a society exists external to individuals. He argues that only social laws, or laws of inter-psychological processes including imitation, opposition and adaptation, can form a society. By these laws, belief and desire are basic social quantities that transfer between individuals to constitute associations. Changes in belief or desire cause innovations. Innovations are therefore by nature basic elements in the process of society formation. Also as a driving force to social change, innovation contributes to the progress and differentiation of a society. Moreover, innovation is not necessarily a linear process. It can be multi-dimensional and discontinuous. A total and interdisciplinary perspective is therefore required to the study of innovation.
    Relation: 政治與社會哲學評論, 41,153-203
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 期刊論文

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