慎到是最早期的稜下先生，由於他對社會生活與政治生 活中的「公共性」的考量，使他由道家存有論、宇宙論和修養論， 轉出法家的政治哲學與法律哲學。他是由老莊道家轉往黃老道家， 由道家轉出法家的關鍵性人物。基本上，慎到重視社會與政治生活 中的「公」的層面及其客觀化建構，一方面保留了道家對自然的客 觀規律的認識，但另方面也重視法的人為建構及其變遷。對於「公 共性」的考量，貫穿了慎到對於「勢」、「法」、「術」的看法。 值得注意的是，慎到並不是一個嚴苛的法家。慎到雖強調法，但認 為法不宜僵硬;他雖強調勢，也就是權力的運用，但不喜權力的傲 慢;他雖討論「無為J 以之為君臣關係之術，但他不喜秘密的權 諜，沒有後來法家那般玩弄權術;這些主要是由於他以政治社會為 實現公共性的領域。 Shen Dao was among the earliest Jixia scholars, who, because of his concern of the “publicity" in social and political realms, moved from Daoist ontology, cosmology and spirituality to Legalist political philosophy. He should be seen as the crucial figure in the transition from the development of the Daosim of Laozi and Zhuangzi to the Huanglao Daoism and from Daoism to Legalism. Basically, Shen Dao put emphasis on the public aspect of social and political Iives and its objective construction, in keeping the idea of regularity of natural law in Daoism and the artificial construction of law and its process of becoming. The idea of publicity penetrated all his philosophy of Law, Power and statecraft. He was not a severe legalist, not allowing law to be stringent, power to be arrogant and statecraft to be machiavellian, all because of his concern with publicity, objectivity and justice.