This paper describes an analytic and synthetic new service development (NSD) method for devising collaborative service systems (CSSs). The predominant NSD method is a process-based one that belongs to the well-established service blueprints approach in order to create flexible flowchart-like models of customer-provider interaction flows. In contrast to the static service blueprints approach, the proposed NSD method belonging to CSSs includes the service operation management design adopting the proposed mutualism-based NSD method (MBNSD). This paper also presents a novel conceptual metaphor between ecological mutualism for species and value coproduction for service providers and customers. The CSSs designed by MBNSD enable the automated value coproduction (mutualism) for service participants (species). Constructing CSS initially involves identifying value coproduction-based service concepts (mutualism-what), modeling service encounters and service exchanges adopting evolutionary algorithms and optimization methods (mutualism-how), as well as estimating their collaborative service-quality (CSQ) (fitness) to determine whether the service participants achieve mutualism and adaptability (evolution). MBNSD consists of three phases: identifying and determining CSS classifications, designing and modeling CSS applications, and estimating and managing CSS CSQ. Moreover, three cases are described that involve CSS applications, i.e., iMusicCreation, iInteriorDesign, and iMobileDesign, that are designed based on MBNSD. Importantly, this systematic procedure of automating service value coproduction based on MBNSD significantly contributes to NSD applications and research.
IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part C -Applications and Reviews, 41(3), 316-332