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    Title: 瑞士公投通過反尖塔法案之背景與影響
    The Study of the Minaret Ban in Switzerland
    Authors: 董雲翔
    Tung, Yun Hsiang
    Contributors: 張台麟
    Chang, Tai Lin
    董雲翔
    Tung, Yun Hsiang
    Keywords: 多元文化
    伊斯蘭
    穆斯林
    尖塔
    反尖塔法案
    Multiculturalism
    Islam
    Muslims
    Minarets
    anti-Minaret bill
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-03-03 15:35:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 瑞士的民主體制舉世稱羨,其聯邦分權制度與直接民主制度也向來是各國政治學上研究的顯學,人民可以透過投票的方式對政府政策或生活規範做出選擇。境內的文化多樣,無論是種族、宗教及語言,堪稱是歐洲文化的匯集。
    自二戰後,大量移民湧進瑞士,使得境內的文化與宗教更加多元,尤其是穆斯林移民,人口在短短的50年間就增加了近36萬人,也讓伊斯蘭教成為瑞士的第三大宗教。然而,相異的宗教及文化習慣造成生活上的衝突,也造成更多的誤解、歧視與不包容。2009年,瑞士在人民誤解的情況與右翼政黨的操弄下,以公民投票的方式通過禁建伊斯蘭宗教建築「尖塔」的法案,除了衝擊到自身多元文化的價值,影響國內族群的融合外,也在歐洲國家、中東國家以及宗教、文化、學術領域造成一股不小騷動。雖然,法案支持者宣稱其訴求僅是希望透過禁建宗教政治意味濃厚的建築象徵來防止瑞士伊斯蘭化,並沒有要妨礙穆斯林對其宗教的體現。然而,這樣的舉措仍被視為是對伊斯蘭及穆斯林的歧視與排斥,認為有違國際人權公約所保障的「宗教信仰自由」的權利,儘管歐洲人權法院最終並沒有認定本案有造成歧視及妨礙宗教自由的情況。
    瑞士政府在法案通過後,對穆斯林族群極盡表現善意地實施安撫性作為,包含進行對國家與宗教之間關係的專案研究,以及舉辦各層級與穆斯林的對談。但人民對穆斯林所表現出來的不信任及對伊斯蘭教的歧視,卻接踵引發歐陸國家的「伊斯蘭恐懼症」效應,各國反伊斯蘭的右派政黨紛紛崛起,甚至靠著製造衝突性競選議題成為國會中的主要政黨,對穆斯林制定出各種限制性措施。
    Swiss democracy is admirable in the world. Its decentralization and direct democracy are the popular issues for political researchers of many countries. Citizens in Switzerland can give voice and decision to the government policies and daily regulations by voting. In addition, Switzerland also features culture pluralism, inclusive of races, religions, and languages from all over the Europe.
    After World War II, a large number of immigrants had flocked in Switzerland, making the culture and religions more multiple. Especially the amount of population of Islam, their number in the past period of 50 years had increased up to 360,000, and become the third-largest religion in Switzerland. However, the differences between the religions and customs posed more conflict, misunderstanding, discrimination as well as intolerant. In 2009, the people of Switzerland, in the case of misunderstanding and manipulation of right-wing parties, say “No” to the religious buildings of Islam “Minaret” by referendum, and amendment to article 72 of the Swiss Federal Constitution. Besides the impact of the value of cultural pluralism and the integration, it also caused a great unrest in Europe and Middle East, as well as in the academic fields of religions and cultures. Nevertheless, the initiative supporters claimed that their purpose was to prevent the Islamization of Switzerland by banning the architect of religion-political symbols, but did not discourage the religion from practice. However, the action was thought of a kind of discrimination and rejection to Islam and Muslims, also violating the “Freedom of religion”, which was protected by the international human rights. Eventually, the European Court of Human Rights brought in a verdict of not discrimination or violating the freedom of religion.
    After the referendum, the Swiss government managed to show kindness to, and did the best to comfort the Muslim community, including working on a national research program named “Religions, the State, and Society”, and holding many dialogs with Muslim community, and so on. However, with the distrust and discrimination to Muslim from the people in Switzerland, it posed “Islamophobia” effect in many countries in Europe. The right-wing parties against Islam in those countries rise, and even become major parties in parliament by making the conflict issues. And now, those parties begin to make a variety of restrictive measures to the Muslim.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歐洲語文學程碩士在職專班(MPES)
    97952004
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0097952004
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲語文學系] 學位論文

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