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    Title: 印度的民主與民主化-實踐與意義
    Other Titles: Democracy and Democratization in India: Practice and Implications
    Authors: 魏玫娟
    Wei, Mei-chuan
    Contributors: 國發所
    Keywords: 印度;民主與民主化;發展;政治文化;善治
    India;democracy and democratization;development;political culture;good governance
    Date: 2013.06
    Issue Date: 2014-03-21 16:39:23 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文採用歷史分析途徑,旨在透過批判地檢視既有研究文獻來探討印度的民主實踐與民主化經驗,著重於印度民主所具有的兩個獨特性。不同於主流現代化理論的說法與多數西方民主國家的發展經驗,印度的民主不僅是在經濟發展程度相對不高、貧窮仍普遍存在的情況下所發展出來,也是在國家疆界仍未完全確定、社群衝突頻仍的條件下持續運作。在此基礎上,本文進一步探討印度在其獨特發展條件下所進行的民主實踐,可能對其他發展中國家(例如中國)具有什麼樣的意義。論者對於印度這個「世界上人口最多的民主國家」之發展經驗有褒有貶,但是不管從現代化理論、結構途徑或從轉型理論、菁英策略談判的角度來評價印度的民主,其結論往往導向「印度的民主雖然鞏固,但是治理品質低落」。印度自獨立以來所實行的以聯邦制跟議會制為主的民主政治制度相對穩定,但貧窮與貪腐的問題普遍存在、因種族衝突而起的暴力事件頻傳、與鄰國的領土糾紛不斷等,也嚴重影響著印度民主治理的品質。本文認為,印度的民主與民主化經驗對發展中國家所具有的重要意義在於,善治並不必然伴隨著民主而存在,但善治深切地影響著民主政治的品質與民主價值的實踐。
    Through an historical analysis based on a critical examination of the existing literature on India’s development, this essay aims to explore India’s democratic practice and trajectory of democratization, focusing on two peculiarities of India’s developmental experience. It further discusses the implications of democracy and democratization in India for other developing countries, such as its neighbor, China. The Indian case posts a serious challenge to the explanation of mainstream modernization theory, which associates the emergence of democracy with social and economic development. India’s democracy had developed in a context where immense poverty and frequent communal and border conflicts existed. These problems, unequal social opportunities, immense poverty, and prevailing corruption, remain major challenges to the quality of the country’s democratic governance. It is argued in this essay that one main implication of India’s democratic experience for other developing countries is that good governance, which greatly affects the quality of democracy, does not necessarily come along with democracy nonetheless.
    Relation: 台灣國際研究季刊, 9(2), 105-137
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 期刊論文

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