以女流歌人聞名於世的小野小町與和泉式部二人在日本中世的傳說中被描寫為好色的女性之外，甚至還被描寫成了遊女。遊女小野小町多被視為神佛的化身或是引渡眾生者，而相較之下，遊女和泉式部則多為佛教救濟女性之範例。由此可見兩人分別肩負不同的角色。換言之亦顯示出中世的遊女像中擁有上述兩項要素。為何遊女像會有如此要素存在？本論文試將列舉二人之遊女傳說，並以佛教的觀點來加以探究中世之遊女像。 第一、二章為探討小野小町與和泉式部傳說中關於遊女像的生成以及當時的遊女觀。第三章中則詳細論述作為中世遊女物語前提之女人罪業觀與救濟思想。第四章乃先提示中世遊女物語所見之佛教女性觀，再以平安‧鎌倉佛教史為背景，闡述其觀點之形成過程。 綜觀以上各章之所述，將遊女以頗負盛名的兩大女性歌人亦或是菩薩之化身等詞彙形容可視為一種美化遊女的作用。又，由此得以看出佛教對女性進行傳教一目的。遊女透過文藝作品中找出自我的存在價值，且對於佛教以及男性而言具有重要意義。依上所述，遊女在當時的社會是不可或缺之存在可見一斑。這些傳說所被賦予之意義大致可歸結如以下三點：第一、可窺探中世理想之遊女像。第二、可看出佛教於中世庶民社會的布教方式。第三、給予已受容女性蔑視觀之女性來世希望。 Ono no Komachi and Izumi Shikibu, the two famous female poets, are portrayed as lustful women, or even courtesans in the Middle Ages of Japan. Ono no Komachi is seen as the personification of Buddha or the messiah. Compared to Ono no Komachi, Izumi Shikibu is seen as the model of female salvation. From this point of view, the two women play different roles. It also reveals that the two characteristics are included in the images of courtesans in the Middle Ages of Japan. Why are these characteristics included in the images of courtesans? This thesis will examine the images of courtesans in the Middle Ages of Japan from a Buddhist view and will take the legends of Ono no Komachi and Izumi Shikibu for example. Chapter 1 and chapter 2 are concerned with the emergence of the images of courtesans and the ideas of courtesans in the legends of Ono no Komachi and Izumi Shikibu. Chapter 3 analyzes thoughts on the sin of women and salvation, characteristics in courtesan tales in the Middle Ages of Japan. Chapter 4 begins by presenting the Buddhist view of women in courtesan tales in the Middle Ages of Japan, and then lays out the development of this view based on the history of Buddhism in the Heian period and the Kamakura period. From the above chapters, courtesans can be idealized by describing them as famous female poets or the personification of Buddha. This idealization aims at Buddhist preaching to women. Courtesans realize the value of self-existence through literary works. These women are important to Buddhism and men. It is clear that courtesans are indispensable at that time. The meanings of these legends are composed of three points: first, an observation of ideal images of courtesans in the Middle Ages of Japan; second, an observation of preaching methods of Buddhism in Medieval civil society; third, an observation of the idealization which gives hope of afterlife to women who take the contempt of women for granted.