1980年代中國大陸開始改革經濟體制前，其政治制度最為人詬病的，便是「黨政不分」或「以黨代政」的問題。然而，中共建政之初並非如此，當時的黨政關係既非一元也非二元，而是一種極為特殊的黨政分工合作模式，這種特殊的黨政模式，使得1950年代初期中國大陸得以兼顧經濟發展與群眾動員的雙重目標。當時政府內的黨組與非政府的黨組織有某種程度的分工，使得政務得以持續推展，黨組織的主要任務，在於指導群眾動員工作，黨政維持正常運作。本文以1951-1952年「三反」為例，說明建政初期政務推動和群眾動員之間互動關係。「三反」期間，新成立的「中央人民政府節約檢查委員會」和「中共中央一級機關總黨委」負責群眾動員，但「政務院黨組幹事會」與「政務院政務會議」的合作未受到太大影響，政務院不僅能主導經濟政策，也發揮了恢復社會秩序的重要功能，避免群眾運動的擴大化和激進化。 Before economic reforms in the 1980s, the fact that the CCP played too dominant a role at the expenses of the government has been the most troubling phenomenon in China's political system. Based on the case of the "Three-Antis" campaign in the early 1950s, the article finds a different scenario. Contrary to the prevailing totalitarian model developed during Mao's era, the article argues that the two, the party and the state, were actually collaborative to the achievements of economic development and mass mobilization simultaneously. This collaborative mode was made possible because the State Council's Party Committee, or "dangzhu", acted as the agent of the CCP sheltering the work of the government from being disrupted by the Party, whereas cooperative nonetheless in conducting mass movements with the Party leading the charge. The case of the "Three-Antis" campaign elucidates the mechanism of the division of labor. Two agencies-the Commission for Frugality Inspection in the Central People's Government and the General Committee of the Departments under the CCP Central Committee-were established for the purpose of mass mobilization. In the meantime, the State Council's Party Committee was able to fully cooperate with the Council. In the end, the mass were not agitated and radicalized as many other similar campaigns had exhibited later on.