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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/66764

    Title: 由社會主義經濟轉軌到市場經濟之路:以中共「住房改革」為案例
    Authors: 陳小紅
    Contributors: 社會系
    Date: 1996.07
    Issue Date: 2014-06-17 17:56:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自一九八0年四月上旬鄧小平提出住房制度改革的總體構想揭開中國大陸住房改革序幕迄今,中共住房改革已歷經設計試點、擴大試點及全方位住房改革三個階段。這十五年來的房改固然在提升大陸人民住房水平方面收到了可觀成效,激發了自購房屋的商品化意識,逐漸將過去「無償」由國家和企業負擔的住房福利轉軌成國家、企業和個人共同負擔的商品和房地交換市場概念;唯十五年來中共住房改革曾歷經"兩起兩落",且因在工資、提租與售價、土地產權、金融、房地產等周邊配套措施方面改革力度的不足,房改的終極目標---由公有制走向私有制並不如預期般順利。 本研究藉回顧中外文獻、深入訪談與房改工作相關人士、實地參觀等方法收集大陸房改相關資訊並整理分析北京、上海、天津三大院轄市租金機會成本與售價和購買能力等間之關係,以期掌握大陸房改之動力與困境、配套措施之佈局和作業;初步發現目前大陸房改同時存在著"嚴重短缺"與"過渡消費"兩大特色,而欲達成住房商品化與私有化的房改終極目標,本研究建議除諸如房地產物業管理等「技術面」及如金融、土地產權等「政策面」課題外,傳統低房租、配給制的「福利」觀念,依身分而有別之住房「等級」觀念,以及習慣將住房排除在個人消費支出外之「供給」觀念等均有待突破,庶幾企圖結合「價格改革」與「權力改革」於一體的房改方能落實。Based on literature review, first-hand in-depth interviews, observations as well as statistical analysis, this study tried to explore the dynamics and dilemma of housing reform in China since April, 1980 when Deng Hsiao-ping first promulgated reform. Though the housing reform undertook in China for the past 15 years has improved somewhat the living conditions of Chinese people (as evidenced by such indicators as average floor area space per person, housing expenditure as percentage of overall household consumption, housing investment as proportion of overall fixed investment, etc.); aroused "the sense of commodity" among the general public; and shifted the notion of treating housing as part and parcel of government/enterprise's welfare delivery system into some kind of 'responsibility' ought to be shouldered by the government, the enterprise, and the users; however, due to unsettled issues such as land ownership right, not fully developed housing financial system, inadequate real estate market, and, most of all, both raised rental and sale prices of housing after the reform are far beyond the affordability of the general public (this is further elaborated by the empirical analysis in the study with regard to the rental opportunity cost and sale price of Beijing, Shanghai, and Tainjin. It is found that at present stage, the sale price is far above the capacity of the three cities' residents while the existing rent is too low to beat the opportunity cost of the three municipalities' authorities), thus the two major goals of housing reform-to raise the rent and to encourage people to own houses become rather infeasible in reality. The study further found that there exist discrepancies among different agencies in terms of mobilizing housing resources therefore create unequal distribution problem. To combat such setbacks, the research suggests that other than 'conceptual' reform, it is important to work out an integrated approach taking into consideration of all related elements as finance, land/housing ownership structure, wage reform, real estate management, etc., in order to effectively implement the housing reform's ultimate objectives---commercialized and privatized the housing market.
    Relation: 國科會
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 國科會研究計畫

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