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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/66765


    Title: 經濟效率與社會公平 :中國大陸區域發展政策的探索與評估(I)
    Other Titles: Economic Efficiency and Social Equity---An Exploration and Assessment of China's Regional Development Policy
    Authors: 陳小紅
    Contributors: 社會系
    Date: 1997
    Issue Date: 2014-06-17 17:56:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 一九七八年中共推動「向東傾斜」改革開放政策迄今,每年平均12%的經濟成長率大大地改善了中國大陸的經濟水平。然而,無可諱言地,「讓少部分人(地區)先富起來」的政策也助長了地區間發展的不均衡和深化了區域間的所得差距。 為改善區域發展差距,落實社會主義中國避免「兩極分化」,完成「共同富裕」的終極發展目標;一九八0年代中期後,中共先後採取了「八七扶貧攻堅計畫」及「社會保障體系改革」等措施,企圖藉此在「經濟改革」與「社會公平」間尋求新的平衡點。 本研究為二年計畫的第一年,藉大量國際與大陸學者對本課題之次級資料,針對改革開放後中國大陸區域發展差距現況與造成此一現象背景,分析了包括「八七扶貧攻堅計畫」暨中共『九五計畫』與「二0一0年發展建議」中有關回應空間發展暨所得差距之各項對策暨這些計畫和政策推行迄今甚或未來可能會帶給大陸空間發展格局方面之衝擊。 研究中特別闡述了改革開放後,在追求快速經濟發展過程中導致「效率」與「公平」目標間的矛盾。而與西方先進社會及台灣經驗相比較,中國大陸近年來在區域(空間)發展政策方面漸由梯度策略向協調模式轉移,尤其『九五』計畫中標舉的點軸發展策略更企圖藉「成長極」和「城市帶」的發展,促成區域間經濟協作,期能達成以點帶線,進而有利於全面性發展。此外,在體認全中國592個貧困縣中,80%集中於中、西部,且現仍處貧困狀態的6500萬人口中,80%也在中西部之事實,1994年起推出的「扶貧攻堅計畫」更瞄準"老、少、邊、山、窮"地區進行著諸如科技、信息、文化、產業、溫飽工程、移民工程和希望工程等各種方式的扶貧,盼能於本世紀結束前解決空間不均衡發展與所得差距問題。唯因中國貧困地區及貧窮人口本身的基數過大,又有過往「價格差」、「地區封鎖」、「稅制不健全」等歷史包袱,專家學者們咸認未來中國大陸區域/所得差距雖將因前述各項措施之推動在相對差距上有所減少,唯短期間絕對差距仍難期降低。 Since China adopted open policy in 1978, the average 12% annual growth rate has greatly improved her overall economic standard. However, let certain people (area) gain wealth first' strategy embedded in the open policy also contributed a great deal to the growing regional and income disparities. To combat 'polarized' development and materialize the socialist 'prosperity together' national development goal, Mainland China has launched the 1994 poverty-eradication plan' and 'social security system reform' after mid-1980s in order to strike a new balance between 'economic efficiency' and 'social equity'. This study, being the first year research of a two-year project, focuses on existing regional disparity and its background, analyzed not only 'poverty-eradication programs of 1994' but 'the ninth five-year economic plan and proposed development sketch for 2010. The study draws heavy secondary data gathered from abroad and Mainland China. Main concern of discussion has been that of plans and policies responsive to regional and income disparity and the likely impacts these plans and policies may brought to the future spatial development of China. The paper highlighted the contraction between 'efficiency' and 'equity' during the rapid economic development processes in the past. Comparing with the experiences of Taiwan and other western countries confronting similar situation, it is found that in recent years, China has shifted her regional development policy from that of imbalanced growth to a more balanced growth strategy, especially rely heavily on 'growth pole' and 'urban hierarchy' strategies. In addition, given the fact that out of the 592 poor counties existed in China, 80% are concentrated in the middle and/or western regions, 'poverty-eradication programs' promulgated in 1994 has targeted at mountainous, resource-scarce, frontier, old and poor areas of China. Various poverty-eradication programs such as technology-transfer, cultural upgrading, intra-and inter-regional economic cooperation, industrial investment relocation, basic needs approach, educational and massive migration, etc. are experimenting in China. However, due to the fact that poverty-base in China is so big along with the long-standing price discrimination policy across regions, regional blockage, inadequate taxation etc, it is predicted by scholars and experts that in the future the relative disparity though may be decreased, yet the absolute disparity may remain if not growing bigger.
    Relation: 國科會
    NSC86-2412-H004-004
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 國科會研究計畫

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