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    Title: 美國與加拿大技術性移民政策之研究
    The Studies of Skilled Immigration Policies of the United States and Canada
    Authors: 林婉萍
    Lin,Wan Ping
    Contributors: 姜家雄
    林婉萍
    Lin,Wan Ping
    Keywords: 技術性移民
    美國
    加拿大
    長期移民
    短期移民
    Skilled Immgration
    The United States
    Canada
    Permanent Immigration
    Temporary Workers
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-07-14 11:33:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 經濟全球化以及國際分工,形成跨國的人才競爭,許多國家意識到在新經濟模式下欲維持競爭力,就必須吸納世界各國人才,對高技術人才的需求成為許多已開發國家的共同現象,並將技術性人才的跨國招募視為國家政策的重要項目,其中,美國和加拿大是最能成功吸引技術移民的國家,因此,本研究主要想要探討:美國和加拿大能夠成功吸引技術移民的原因是否與美國和加拿大的技術性移民政策有關。
    本研究運用文獻研究法及比較研究法,先分析美國與加拿大的技術性移民政策的發展趨勢與變化,瞭解美國和加拿大技術性移民政策吸引世界各國高技術人才的方式,最後探討美國和加拿大技術性移民政策的成效及影響。
    本研究發現美國與加拿大技術性移民政策的變化,主要受到需求驅動的影響,針對不同時期的需求,會適時調整移民政策,而在基於經濟增長的長遠考慮下,必須有一套穩定、有計劃的招募人才的選擇性移民政策。美國與加拿大招募技術性人才的方式,主要皆以招募永久移民與短期移民為主,永久性的技術移民必須是國家需要的、有利於國家的高技術人才,並能長期為國家作出貢獻者;短期移民目的是為了要解決國家短期急需,但雇主在國內卻又招不到高階人才而設置的,但有工作年限的限制,不但解決了國家對極需人才的問題,也避免了當景氣衰退時的勞工過剩現象。在技術性移民政策的成效上,美國與加拿大的技術性移民政策,無論是永久移民或是短期移民,皆呈現逐年增加趨勢,可見得美國與加拿大的技術性移民政策在吸引各國技術人才上有明顯的成效。
    本研究建議台灣政府學習美國與加拿大,調整技術性移民政策或配套措施,減少嚴重的人才流失問題,有效吸引外國技術性人才。並期待國內能有更多與美國及加拿大技術性移民政策的相關研究,作為台灣制訂技術性移民政策的借鏡。
    Due to economic globalization and international division of labor, contries compete for manpower cross the global. Many countries have realized the importance of recruiting labor forces over the world to maintain their competitiveness under this new economic trend. Especially the needs for high skilled professionals have become a common phenomenon in many developed countries. They regard the transnational labor recruitment is a crucial factor of their national policies. Among these countries, the United State of American and Canada are most success on recruiting skilled immigrants. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to explore a question - Are the policies of skilled immigrants of United State of American and Canada related to their success of skilled workers recruitment?
    This study utilizes literature review and comparative research method. Through analyzing the developmental trend and change of skilled immigrant policies of the United State of American and Canada, this study tries to understand the method of transnational skilled worker recruitment from these policies. Further, this study discusses the achievements and impacts of these policies.
    This study found the changes of skilled immigrant policies of the United State of American and Canada majorly were influenced by the demands of labor forces. Focusing on the demands in different periods, these policies were adjusted accordingly. Based the long term consideration on the economic growth, countries need to have a stable and planned selective immigrant policies on recruitment of skilled workers. The United State of American and Canada’s methods of recruiting skilled labors primarily are in two categories - “Permanent Immigration" and “Temporary Workers”. Permanent immigration is given to immigrants who are high skilled workers. They are needed by the country and will benefit to the country. Also they will contribute to the country for a long time. On the other hand, the temporary worker is given to skilled workers who are fulfilled the short-term needs of the country when these employers could not find employees from domestic labor force. Temporary worker status has limitation on the duration of stay that solves the shortage of domestic manpower and also avoids the excessive labor force in recession. Regarding the achievements of skilled immigrant policies of the United State of American and Canada, both “Permanent Immigration” and “Temporary Workers” policies have been brining skilled workers increasingly every year. This shows their policies have significant effects on recruiting skilled workers cross the world.
    This study suggests Taiwan government can learn from skilled immigrant policies of the United State of American and Canada. Taiwan government can adjust its skilled immigrant policies or other supporting measurements. It can reduce seriously problem of losing skilled workers and effectively recruiting skilled workers from other countries.
    This study expects more related researches in Taiwan on skilled immigrant policies of the United State of American and Canada. It could provide references for designing skilled immigrant policies in Taiwan.
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    三、網站資料:
    加拿大移民與公民部(Citizenship and Immigration Canada):
    http://www.cic.gc.ca/
    加拿大就業與社會發展部(Employment and Social Development Canada,
    ESDC):
    http://www.esdc.gc.ca/eng/home.shtml
    經濟合作與發展組織(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
    Development):http://www.oecd.org/
    美國公民及移民服務局(U.S.Citizenship and Immigration Service)
    :http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis
    美國領事事務局(Service of The Bureau of Consular Affairs-US
    Department of State):
    http://www.travel.state.gov/
    美國國家安全局( U.S. Department of Homeland Security):
    http://www.dhs.gov/
    美國人口普查局(United States Census Bureau):
    http://www.census.gov/
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系戰略與國際事務碩士在職專班
    100922019
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0100922019
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[戰略與國際事務碩士在職專班] 學位論文

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