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    Title: 俄國德意志人之研究─ 遷入、流放與回歸
    A Study of Russian Germans: Migration, Deportation and Return
    Authors: 周克宣
    Chou, Ko Hsuan
    Contributors: 郭武平
    周克宣
    Chou, Ko Hsuan
    Keywords: 凱薩琳二世
    伏爾加
    俄國德意志人
    民族流放
    Volga
    Catherine II
    Russian Germans
    Deportation
    Date: 2013
    Issue Date: 2014-07-29 16:16:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要探討自1762年到2012年俄國德意志人在俄國的歷史,內容含括德意志人遷移俄國之背景、蘇聯時期的流放以及蘇聯解體後的現況。
    本研究成果主要有四點:(一)、凱薩琳二世為鞏固及開發大片南方新疆土,在1762年開始邀請外國殖民者的政策,眾多特權及優惠吸引了當時歐洲窮困的德意志人遷移至俄國,遷入運動長達百年並在19世紀末逐漸停歇。(二)、對德意志人的流放早自30年代便已展開,1930年初,對德意志人的流放起初為「階級取向」,主要流放富農德意志人,1935年後,逐漸移轉到「民族取向」,以民族作為流放的標準,並一直持續到二戰時期。流放對德意志人的影響甚大,較為明顯的為居住地的改變、職業、母語認同與教育程度的低下。(三)、德意志人在戰後的回歸,主要受到蘇聯與西德政府的外交關係影響,但在蘇聯解體後,則是受到德國移民法規的影響。由於法規趨嚴,俄國德意志人近年來回歸德國人數不斷下滑,且已成為一個趨勢。(四)、目前俄羅斯僅存60萬德意志人,哈薩克約23萬。俄羅斯及哈薩克皆提出優惠條件希望吸引德意志人再度回歸,但真正回歸的寥寥可數,俄國德意志人最終很可能成為歷史名詞。雖然在俄羅斯境內存在兩個德意志人自治區,但德意志人未來很有可能面臨同化的命運。
    This article is focused on the history of Russian Germans in Russia from 1762 to 2012, which includes the historical background of their migration to the Russia Empire, deportation in the Soviet era, and their current status after the breakup of the Soviet Union.
    The author has come to four conclusions as follows:
    1. Emigration of Russian Germans occurred because of the will of Catherine II. During her reign, she intended to consolidate and develop the new annexed land in southern Russia, which eventually led to her first invitation to foreign settlers in 1762. Catherine II provided foreign settlers with a series of privileges and thus attracted mainly Germans- who at that time were beset by poverty. Germans` emigration to Russia lasted for more than 100 years and came to a halt in late 19th century.
    2. The deportation directed at Russian Germans was already in action in the 1930s. From the beginning of 1930s, the deportation of Russian Germans was class-oriented. After 1935, however, it gradually switched to nationality-oriented and remained to be so during WWII. The deportation of Russian Germans had devastating consequences, most predominantly by the change of residence (from Europe to Asia), profession, and by the downfall of mother tongue salience and education level.
    3. The number of Russian German returnees to Germany after WWII was influenced by the diplomatic relations between Soviet Union and West Germany. After the demise of the Soviet Union, the number of returnees, however, was under the influence of domestic immigration laws of Germany. Due to the fact that there had been stricter restrictions toward Russian German returnees in recent years, the number of returnees has been declining and is expected to decrease in the future.
    4. Currently there are around 60 thousand Russian Germans in Russia and another 23 thousand in Kazakhstan. Both counties have proposed good terms to attract Russian Germans to come back, but just a few of them eventually returned. Although there are two German autonomous districts in Russia, the residents in these two districts also face danger of assimilation.
    Reference: 一、 中文部分:
    專書:
    尹慶耀,蘇維埃帝國的消亡(臺北:五南圖書出版,1997)。
    列寧,中共中央馬克思、恩格斯、列寧、斯大林著作編譯局譯,列寧論民族殖民地問題的三篇文章(北京:人民出版社,1967)。
    沈志華總主編,蘇聯歷史檔案選編,(北京:社會文獻出版社,2002),第12卷、第26卷。
    周尚文、葉書宗、王斯德等著,蘇聯興亡史(上海:上海人民出版社,2002)。
    青覺、栗獻忠,蘇聯民族政策的多維審觀(北京:中央民族大學出版社,2009)。
    埃萊娜.卡雷爾著,郗文譯,分崩離析的帝國:蘇聯國內的民族反抗 (北京:新華出版社,1982)。
    張紹勳,研究方法(臺中:滄海書局,2000)。
    斯大林,論民族問題(中共中央中南局宣傳部編,1953) 。
    葉至誠,社會科學概論(臺北:陽智文化出版社,2000)。
    趙常慶、陳聯璧、劉康岑、董曉舊等著,蘇聯民族問題研究(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2006)。
    劉向文,俄國政府與政治(臺北:五南圖書出版社,2002)。
    羅.亞.麥德維傑夫著,趙詢、林英譯,讓歷史來審判(上、下冊) ( 北京:東方出版社,2005 )。
    羅伯特.康奎斯特主編,劉靖北、劉振前等譯,最後的帝國:民族問題與蘇聯的前途(上海:華東師範大學出版社,1993)。
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    亞歷山大.佩日科夫著,劉明等譯,解凍的赫魯雪夫(北京:新華出版社,2006)。
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    Martin Gilbert 著,王玉菡譯,俄國歷史地圖 (北京:中國青年出版社,2009)。

    期刊:
    呂卉,「農業全盤集體化時期特殊移民的遷移,安置和利用 - 基於俄羅斯最新解密檔案的分析」,河南師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版),第36卷,第4期(2009),頁160-163。
    李朋,「蘇聯民族政策失誤爭議」,西伯利亞研究,第31卷,第4期(2004),頁48-50。
    初祥,「鮮為人知的一幕— 蘇聯德意志人被迫移居西伯利亞和中亞的歷史」,西伯利亞研究,第4期(1999),頁1-8。
    師建軍,「關於戰後蘇聯特殊移民的解密檔案」,冷戰國際史研究,俄國解密檔案(2010),頁413-505。
    師建軍,「蘇聯特殊移民政策的歷史演變」,寧夏大學學報,第30卷,第5期(2008),頁88-95。
    師建軍、付奮奎,「蘇聯特殊移民政策的深層原因」,俄羅斯研究,第6期(2007),頁86-92。
    徐隆彬,「衛國戰爭期間蘇聯七個被遷少數民族的命運」,俄羅斯中亞東歐研究,第6期(2008),頁68-74。
    馮佩成,「蘇聯農業集體化中的特殊移民現象」,俄羅斯研究,第3期(2005),頁59-65。
    楊君仁,「德國移民法制之變遷及其對我之借鏡」,法制論叢,第44 期(2009),頁1-38。
    劉顯忠,「衛國戰爭爆發前後蘇聯對少數民族的遷移」,俄羅斯中亞東歐研究,第2期(2007),頁72-79。
    譚繼軍,「試析蘇聯特殊移民的飢餓現象」,俄羅斯研究,第1期,(2004),頁56-63。
    譚繼軍,「蘇聯特殊移民的政治情緒及其表達方式」,當代世界社會主義問題,第2期(2012),頁118-127。
    根納季.博爾久戈夫著,李興耕譯,「蘇聯30年代”大清洗”運動中的民族範疇」,國外理論動態,第12期,(2007),頁24-25。

    網路資料:
    「聯邦德國基本法」:
    <http://www.recht-harmonisch.de/GG-chinesisch.pdf>(2014年5月18日)

    二、英文部分:
    專書:
    Bougai , Nikolai, The Deportation of Peoples in the Soviet Union (New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 1996).
    Conquest , Robert, Soviet Nationalities Policy in Practice (New York: Praeger, 1967).
    Conquest , Robert, The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (London: Macmillan, 1960).
    Kaiser , Darrel Philip, Emigration to and from the German-Russian Volga Colonies (Huntsville: Darrel Kaiser Books, 2007).
    Koch , Fred C, The Volga Germans in Russia and The Americas from 1763 to the present (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1978).
    Kolarz , Walter, Russia and Her Colonies (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1952).
    Krieger , Viktor, “Patriots or Traitors? - The Soviet Government and the “German Russians” After the Attack on the USSR by National Socialist Germany,” Russian- German Special Relations in the Twentieth Century : A Closed Chapter ? (New York: Berg Publishers, 2006), pp. 133-163.
    Lohr , Eric, Nationalizing the Russian Empire : The Campaign against Enemy Aliens during World War I (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003).
    Long , W. James, From Privileged to Dispossessed: The Volga Germans,1860-1917 (London: University of Nebraska Press, 1988).
    Minahan , James, The Former Soviet Union`s Diverse Peoples- A Reference Sourcebook (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIOs, 2004).
    Mukhina , Irina, The Germans of the Soviet Union (New York : Routledge, 2007).
    Pipes , Richard, The Formation of the Soviet Union : Communism and Nationalism, 1917-1923 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964).
    Pohl , J. Otto, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937-1949 (Westport CT: Greenwood, 1999).
    Polian , Pavel, Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2003).
    Rockett L. Rocky, Ethnic Nationalities in The Soviet Union (New York : Praeger, 1981).
    Simon , Gerhard, (Karen Forster& Oswald Forster Trans), Nationalism and Policy Toward the Nationalities in the Soviet Union : from Totalitarian Dictatorship to Post-Stalinist Society (Boulder: Westview, 1991).

    專書篇章:
    Bridenthal , Renate, “The Political Network of a Double Diaspora,” in O. Donnel , Krista, Bridenthal , Renate & Reagin , Nancy eds., The Heimat Abroad the Boundaries of Germanness (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2005), pp. 187-218.
    Oldenburg , Fred, “Relations between the USSR and the Federal Republic of Germany,” in The Federal Institute for Soviet and International Studies eds., The Soviet Union, 1988-1989 Perestroika in Crisis? (Boulder: Westview Press, 1990), pp. 250-256.
    Pohl , J. Otto, “The Loss, Retention, and Reacquisition of Social Capital by special Settlers in the USSR, 1941-1960,” in Cynthia J. Buckley, Blair A. Ruble& Erin Trouth Hofmann eds., Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008 ), pp. 287-312.
    Ruth , Mandel, “Diaspora and the Post-Soviet Transnational Experience,” in Cynthia J. Buckley Blair A. Ruble& Erin Trouth Hofmann eds., Migration, Homeland, and Belonging in Eurasia (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008 ), pp. 303-325.
    Stricker , Gerd, “Ethnic Germans in Russia and the Former Soviet Union,” in Stefan Wolff ed., German Minorities In Europe (New York and Oxford: Berghahn books, 2000), pp. 165-179.
    Wolff , Stefan, “The Politics of Homeland,” in Krista O. Donnel, Renate Bridenthal& Nancy Reagin eds., The Heimat Abroad the Boundaries of Germanness (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2005), pp. 287-309.

    期刊:
    Casteel , E. James, “The Russian Germans in the Interwar German National Imaginary,” Central European History 40(2007), pp. 429-466.
    Heitman , Sidney, “The Soviet Germans,” Central Asian Survey 12(1) (1993), pp. 71-80.
    Kreindler , Isabelle, “The Soviet Deported Nationalities: A Summary and an Update,” Soviet Studies, Vol. 38, No. 3(Jul., 1986), pp. 387-405.
    Long , James W, “The Volga Germans and the Famine of 1921,” Russian Review, Vol. 51, No. 4(Oct., 1992) , pp. 510-525.
    Martin , Terry, “The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing,” The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 70, No. 4(Dec., 1998) , pp. 813-861.
    Mukhina , Irina, “To Be Like All But Different: Germans in Soviet Trudarmee,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 63, No. 5(July 2011), pp. 857–874.
    Pinkus , Benjamin, “The emigration of national minorities from the USSR in the post-Stalin era,” Soviet Jewish Affairs, 13:1(1983), pp. 3-36.
    Pohl , J. Otto, “Hewers of Wood and Drawers of Water: The Russian-Germans in the Labour Army,” The Eurasia Studies Society, Vol. 2. No. 1.(Feb., 2013), pp. 1-17.
    Pohl , J. Otto, “Soviet Apartheid: Stalin’s Ethnic Deportations, Special Settlement Restrictions, and the Labor Army: The Case of the Ethnic Germans in the USSR,” Human Rights Review, Vol. 13 Issue 2(2012), pp. 205-224.
    Pohl , J. Otto, “Stalin’s Genocide against the “Repressed Peoples,” Journal of Genocide Research, 2(2), (2000), pp. 267–293.
    Pohl , J. Otto, “Volk auf dem Weg: Transnational Migration of the Russian-Germans From 1763 to the Present Day,” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Vol. 9, No. 2(2009), pp. 267-286.
    Pohl , J. Otto, Schmaltz Eric J. and Vossler J. Ronald , “In Our Hearts We Felt the Sentence of Death: Ethnic German Recollections of Mass Violence in the USSR, 1928–48,” Journal of Genocide Research(2009), 11(2–3), June–September, pp. 323–354.
    Ro’I , Yaacov, “The Transformation of Historiography on the “Punished Peoples” History & Memory(2009), Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 150-176.
    Schmaltz , Eric J, “Carrots and Sticks . . . and Demonstrations: Yuri Andropov’s Failed Autonomy Plan for Soviet Kazakhstan’s Germans, 1976-1980,” The Eurasia Studies Society Journal of Great Britain and Europe(2014), Vol. 3. No. 1, pp. 1-36.
    Schmaltz , Eric J, “Reform “Rebirth” and Regret: The Rise and Decline of The Ethnic-German Nationalist Wiedergeburt Movement in the USSR and CIS,1987-1993,” Nationalities Papers(1998), pp. 215-247.
    Schmaltz , Eric J. and Sinner , D Samuel , “You Will Die under Ruins and Snow: the Soviet Repression of Russian Germans as a Case Study of Successful Genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research(2002), 4(3) , pp. 327–356.
    Şener , Aktürk, “Regimes of Ethnicity: Comparative Analysis of Germany, the Soviet Union/Post-Soviet Russia, and Turkey,” World Politics ,Volume 63, Issue 01(Jan. 2011), pp. 115-164.
    Statiev , Alexander, “Soviet Ethnic Deportations: Intent Versus Outcome,” Journal of Genocide Research(2009), 11(2–3), 6-9, pp. 243-264.
    Takle , Marianne, “(Spät)Aussiedler – from Germans to Immigrants,” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, Vol 17, No. 2, pp. 161-181.
    Wheatcroft , Stephen, “The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930-45,” Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 48, No. 8(Dec., 1996), pp. 1319-1353.

    學位論文:
    Mukhina , Irina, “Reshaping Lives, Reconstructing Identities: Ethnic Germans of the Soviet Union.1941-56,” Ph.D Dissertation, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Department of History, Boston College (2006).

    網路資料:
    “Catherine the Great and the 'Russian-Germans,” Deutsche Welle (Jul. 23.2013),
    <http://www.dw.de/catherine-the-great-and-the-russian-germans/a-16965100>
    (May 29 2014).
    “Chronology for Germans in Kazakhstan” <http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/chronology.asp?groupId=70502> (14 May 2014).
    “Kazakhstan Auf Wiedersehen,” The Economist (Apr. 13, 2000):
    <http://www.economist.com/node/302312> (14 April 2014).
    “KAZAKHSTAN: Special report on ethnic Germans,” Irin News (Feb. 25, 2005): <http://www.irinnews.org/report/28051/kazakhstan-special-report-on-ethnic-germans> (June 1 2014).
    Pohl , J. Otto, “The Deportation and Destruction of the German Minority in the USSR,”<http://www.volgagermans.net/norka/docs/Deportation%20and%20Destruction%20Soviet%20Germans.pdf>, pp. 1-24.
    “Russia Hopes to Lure Back Ethnic Germans,” Deutsche Welle (Sep.09.2007):
    <http://www.dw.de/russia-hopes-to-lure-back-ethnic-germans/a-2772792-1>
    (3 June 2014).
    “Russian-Germans: Back to the Heimat,” Neweurasia.net (Jun. 11, 2007): <http://www.neweurasia.net/politics-and-society/russian-germans-back-to-the-heimat>(22 April 2014).
    “Soviet “Paradise” Revisited: Genocide, Dissent, Memory and Denial”
    <http://www.grhs.org/heritage/SovietRepression.pdf>, pp.1-21.(1 June 2014).
    “Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary”
    <http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/>

    三、德文部分:
    專書:
    Berend , Nina, Russlanddeutsches Dialektbuch (Halle: Projekte-Verlag, 2011).
    Dietz Barbara, Zwischen Anpassung und Autonomie Russlanddeutsche in der vormaligen Sowjetunion und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Berlin: Dunker& Humblot, 1995).
    Hahnenkampf , Hans, Analyse der Lage der Deutschen in Russland nach dem zweiten Weltkrieg-mit besonderem Blick auf die Gründe, die sie veranlasst haben Russland zu verlassen und nach Deutschland zu kommen (Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag, 2010).
    Ipsen-Peitzmeier , Sabine & Kaiser , Markus, Zuhause Fremd-Russlanddeutsche Zwischen Russland und Deutschland (Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2006).
    Kappeler , Andreas, Russland als Vielvölkerreich: Entstehung-Geschichte-Zerfall (München: C.H Beck, 1993).
    Keim , Philipp, Die Wolgadeutschen von der Einwanderung bis zur Aufhebung des Kolonistenkontors (Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag, 2006).
    Korn , Rober, Der Lohn Für die Treue (Waldemar: Weber Verlag, 2012).
    Neutatz , Dietmar, Deutsche Bauern in den Steppen Rußlands Die Wolga- und Schwarzmeerdeutschen von der Ansiedlung bis zur Deportation: Mit einem vergleichenden Blick auf die Donauschwaben (München: Koehler & Amelang, 1994), S. 129 - 136, 145 – 148.
    Prieb , Alexander, Deutsche Kolonisten Russlands 1763-2006 (Augsburg: Waldemar Weber Verlag, 2012).
    Schulz , Wolfgang, Deutsche im Osten:Geschichte,Kultur,Erinnerungen.(München: Koehler & Amelang, 1994).
    Suraganov , Nurlan, Die Zuwanderung Deutscher nach Russland seit dem 18. Jahrhundert und Gründe für die Rückwanderung bis in die heutige Zeit unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Situation in Kasachstan (Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag, 2008).

    期刊:
    Krieger , Viktor,“ Intellektuelle Rückentwicklung – der Russlandeutschen in der Sowjetunion,” Volk auf dem Weg(2006), Nr. 3, S. 12-14.

    專書篇章:
    Eremina , Nadjeschda ,“ Ein bestraftes Volk. Eine Russlanddeutsche Familie im 20.Jahrhundert , ” in Irina Scherbakowa ed., Russlands Gedächtnis Jugendliche Entdecken Vergessene Lebensgeschichten (Hamburg: Körber-Stiftung, 2003),
    S. 79-95.
    Savoskul , Maria,“Russlandeutsche: Integration und Selbstidentifizierung , ” in Ipsen-Peitzmeier , Sabine, Kaiser , Markus, Zuhause Fremd-Russlanddeutsche Zwischen Russland und Deutschland (Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2006), S. 197-221.

    論文:
    Aifeld , Peter, “Russlanddeutsche – Eine Autobiographische Studie vor Historischem Hintergrund,” , S. 1-23.
    Breunig , Klaus, “Das Schicksal der Russlanddeutschen von 1941-1991,” , S. 1-10.
    Gerzen , Alexander, “Geistliche Arbeit unter Russlanddeutschenin der Bundesrepublik Deutschland,” , S. 1-38.
    Krieger , Viktor, “Personen minderen Rechts: Rußlanddeutsche in den Jahren 1941-46,”, S. 93-107.
    Schwarz , Stefan, “Geschichte der Jüdischen und Deutschen Minderheitin der UdSSR von 1941 bis 1953, ” , S. 1-16.

    網路資料:
    Bundesverwaltungsamt:
    <http://www.bva.bund.de/DE/Home/home_node.html> (6 June 2014).
    Bundesvertriebenengesetz § 1Vertriebener):
    <http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bvfg/__1.html> (4 May 2014).
    Bundesvertriebenengesetz § 4 Spätaussiedler):
    <http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bvfg/__4.html> (19 May 2014).
    Bundesvertriebenengesetz § 6 Volkszugehörigkeit):
    <http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bvfg/__6.html> (15 May 2014).
    &quot;Deutsche aus Russland. Wer sie sind. Woher sie kommen. Was sie mitbringen. &quot;:<http://www.landesbeirat.nrw.de/publikationen/Deutsche_aus_Russland.pdf>,S. 1-26.
    “Ernst Reuter: Ein Deutscher an der Wolga” Deutsche Welle (Aug. 12. 2013):
    <http://www.dw.de/ernst-reuter-ein-deutscher-an-der-wolga/a-16893484> (20 April 2014).
    “Fremdrentengesetz”:
    <http://www.russlanddeutschegeschichte.de/geschichte/teil4/aufnahme/rentengesetz.html> (21 May 2014).
    “Junge Spätaussiedlerinnen und Spätaussiedler”:
    <http://www.hochsauerlandkreis.de/untersuchungsbericht_spaetaussiedler.pdf>,
    S. 1-39.(2 June 2014).

    四、俄文部分:
    專書:
    Герман А. А, Немцы в контексте Отечественной истории: общие проблемы и региональные особенности (Москва : Готика, 1999).
    Поболь Н.Л, Полян П.М, Сталинские депортации 1928-1953 (Москва: Демократия, 2005).

    論文:
    Герман А. А, «Источник публикации: Немцы СССР в годы Великой Отечественной войны и в первое послевоенное десятилетие 1941-1955 гг». Материалы 7-й международной научной конференции. Москва (2001), C. 257-270.
    Земсков В.Н, «Спецпоселенцы» (1990), C. 3-17.
    Земсков В.Н, «Репатриация советских граждан в 1945-1946 годах (1944—1956 гг.)» (1995), C. 3-13.

    網路資料:
    «В Энгельсе открыт памятник депортированным поволжским немцам» Российская газета» (Aug. 28.2011):
    <http://www.rg.ru/2011/08/28/reg-svolga/pamyatnik-anons.html>(14 May 2014).
    «Том 3. Национальный состав и владение языками, гражданство населения Республики Таджикистан»:
    <http://www.stat.tj/ru/img/526b8592e834fcaaccec26a22965ea2b_1355501132.pdf>(June.10.2014).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    101263012
    102
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0101263012
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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