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    Title: 陳獨秀的政治思想中國共運之回顧
    Other Titles: A Reassessment of the Political Thought of Chen Duxiu (1879~1942)
    Authors: 張登及
    Chang, Teng-Chi
    Contributors: 政大東亞所
    Keywords: 陳獨秀;五四運動;中共黨史;國際共運
    Chen Duxiu;Chinese communist history;May Fourth movement;International Communism
    Date: 2000-01
    Issue Date: 2014-08-05 10:40:07 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著中共的改革開放路線確立,其黨史上的若干問題也獲得若干重新檢討的空間,甚至「五四」與中共建黨之父陳獨秀的「問題」也得到其學界之重視。然而由於歷史與政治因素,這種重視並未立即帶來開放與公允的評估。由於陳獨秀與中國現代政治、思想史關係重大,其思想的轉折與矛盾即突出又富爭議性,甚至可以說是中國政經現代化起步時,得失的縮影。本文在其一百二十歲誕辰後,抽繹分析其思想之結構,並藉由突顯其整體性與其中的矛盾,反應與反省中國共產主義運動的得失、曲折,當其有一定的歷史意義。本文同時運用重視脈絡的「歷史─發生學途徑」以及分析性的「結構閱讀」,概述了陳獨秀政治理論諸般主要原則的發展,並藉由突顯其中的矛盾與異例,對比於中國共運的軌跡與危機。在肯定其歷史的地位與作用之餘,將其思想的兩組緊張辯證的理念顯示出來:愛國救亡─民主自由、獨立自主─國際主義;並論斷陳獨秀個人政治事業的成敗、理念的豐富與曲折,乃至被陳嚴厲批判的中共官方社會主義路線的現狀,都可用這兩組理念的辯證,描繪出來。
    Due to the domination of ideology in the study of the history of the Chinese Communist Party, countless taboos and bans on specific issues and historical figures have been established. Consequently, the political theory on socialism as well as the strategy of Chinese revolution developed by Chen Duxiu, the expelled founder and former General Secretary of the CCP, was intensely distorted and considered as deviationism. This is especially true because Chen highly appreciated the ideas of Leon Trotsky, severely criticized the leadership of the Comintern and Stalinism, and in turn denounced Maoism. Given today's atmosphere of reform and openness, some scholars in mainland China have started taking an open-minded approach to the study of Chen's career and ideas. However, the main thrust of this evaluation remains negative.The May Fourth Movement (1918) has been known as a response to the unfair Treaty of Versailles, under which Japan succeeded the privileges of defeated Germany in China. It could also been seen as a cheerful echo to the Russian Revolution in 1917. Being the leader of the May Fourth Movement and the founding father of the CCP, Chen's ideas and position are so complicated that tracing the dynamic development of his political theory is inseparable from the Chinese Communist movement itself.This article aims at reassessing Chen's political theory regarding the strategy of Chinese Revolution, the importance of liberty, the practice of democracy, and the necessity of internationalism. Even if Chen was famous as a patriot and insisted the independent status of the CCP from Moscow, he refused to overemphasize the role of the “State”. Contrasting with the overwhelming dogma of Maoism and Dengism, this article argues that the lack of individual liberty, honest international cooperation, and therefore the fullness of pragmatic compliance with realistic power are the inner causes of the crisis in Chinese Communism.
    Relation: 中國大陸研究, 43(1), 63-77
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究 TSSCI] 期刊論文

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