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    題名: 選擇性正義? 國際刑事法庭在非洲的爭議與挑戰
    其他題名: Selective Justice? Controversies and Challenges Surrounding International Criminal Court in Africa
    作者: 嚴震生
    貢獻者: 國際關係研究中心
    關鍵詞: 選擇性正義;羅馬規約;國際刑事法院;非洲聯盟
    Selective Justice;Rome Statute;International Criminal Court;African Union
    日期: 2012
    上傳時間: 2014-08-06 17:14:13 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 非洲國家的族群矛盾、種族滅絕、及內戰衝突,以及所衍生的違反人道罪、戰爭罪一直是研究非洲的學者專家關注之議題。國際社會在二十一世紀之前並沒有一個常設機構來處理戰爭犯。在一九九八年羅馬規約通過、二○○二年國際刑事法院正式成立後,上述問題終於可以獲得超越國家層次的司法審理。對一個在九○年代發生盧安達種族滅絕、賴比亞及獅子山血腥內戰的非洲國家而言,它們當然希望國際刑事法院的審理程序,不僅讓公義得以伸張,並且能夠遏阻悲劇的再度發生。 不過,從國際刑事院成立以來,它所審理的七個案件全部來自非洲,當然會引發所謂「選擇性正義」的質疑。非洲聯盟對蘇丹總統巴席爾遭到通緝,非常不滿,也不願意接受聯合國安理會委託國際刑事法院通緝利比亞強人格達費及其親信的要求。許多非洲人認為國際刑事法院的歐坎波首席檢察官專門針對非洲辦案,有種族歧視之嫌。究竟國際刑事法院在非洲的威信是否已受折損,導致其所追求的判刑定罪及正義伸張無法獲得認同?在甘比亞的班索達繼任首席檢察官後,非洲聯盟和國際刑事法院的關係是否會出現較為正向的發展?
    Ethnic conflicts, genocides and civil wars as well as the accompanying crimes against humanity and war crimes have long been major focus on African specialists. Before the 21st century, there was no standing international mechanism to deal with individuals who committed war crime. With the introduction of the Rome Statute in 1998 and the subsequent establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in 2002, those crimes can finally be handled by an institution above the national level. For African states that witnessed genocide in Rwanda and bloody civil wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the ICC and its judicial process are instruments of realizing justice and preventing the recurrence of tragedies. However, of the seven cases handled by the ICC since its establishment in 2002, all are from Africa. This will no doubt lead to the suspicion or even accusation of “selective justice”. African Union was upset about Omar al Bashir, a sitting African president, being issued an arrest warrant and it was not pleased with the same request made by the United Nations Security Council to the ICC. Many Africans think Luis Moreno Ocampo, the chief prosecutor of ICC a racist as he only focuses on African cases. Has the ICC reputation been tarnished in Africa to the extent that its pursuit of convicting perpetrators of war crimes and realization of justice can no longer be affirmed by Africans? Will the succession of Fatou Bensuda of Gambia to the chief prosecutor help to usher in a new era that relations between African Union and ICC finally move to a more positive direction?
    關聯: 行政院國家科學委員會
    計畫編號NSC101-2410-H004-112
    資料類型: report
    顯示於類別:[國際關係研究中心] 國科會研究計畫

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