|Abstract: ||一九八九年先有天安門事件,繼而是東歐變色,年底美蘇宣告戰終結。一九九一年共黨蘇聯瓦解。這一連串重大事件的發生導致整個國際體系的基本架構產生巨變,幾乎所有的國家都受到影響,尤以共黨國家為甚。而中共更是首當其衝,遭受到自七０年代以來最大的挑戰,在國際上深感孤立與威脅。究竟中國大陸研究國際關係的學者對冷戰後的國際體系的觀感為何?對中共與中東、東北亞以及東南亞地區關係的看法為何?是否受到前述巨變的衝擊?本計畫之目的即在探討這幾個問題。 全計畫包括三個子計畫,由李登科、劉德海、李明三位教授分別剖析大陸的中東、東北亞與東南亞三個區域之研究。主要內容為中共對該地區研究之過去與現況,冷戰後中共學術界對該地區主要關切的課題,大陸學者對該地區國際關係研究所採行的研究方法、重要成果及其優缺點。 綜合三個子計畫,我們獲致下面幾點結論。第一,大陸對亞洲國際關係的研究在文化大革命期間幾近中斷直至一九七八年實施改革開放政策後始重現生機。進入後冷戰時期,由於遭逢國際環境巨變,國際關係中經濟因素上升為主控變數以及國內經改的需要使得中共對中東、東北亞暨東南亞的研究皆呈現蓬勃發展的氣象,所發表的論文與出版的書籍都大量增加,尤其是以經貿為主題者最為流行。 第二,儘管大陸的亞洲國際關係研究方興未艾,但是其研究方法則仍以傳統的歷史分析法為主,敘述多於分析,僅極少數文章開始使用行為學派的經驗分析法。再者,其不重視註釋的習慣亦易使人對大陸論文的學術性質疑。其他缺點尚包括研究人員待遇微薄,研究設備嚴重不足以及資料更新遲緩等。雖然如此,大陸仍有不少可觀的實力之作,不容我輕視。 第三,儘管改革開放帶來意識形態的鬆綁,我們仍然發現大陸亞洲研究與中共的外交政策有頗多的一致性,且有不少學者沿用馬列思想來分析國際關係,這似乎意味著中共官方仍扮演著主導的角色。其中尤以兩韓研究最為明顯。 第四,經本計畫之研究,吾人感覺大陸的亞洲國際關係研究在涉及面上較我為廣,研究人員的量上亦比我為多,值得我有關單位重視,並企盼能擴大經援國內亞洲國際關係之研究,相信對我國推動南向政策暨發展台灣成為亞太營運中心定有重大裨益。 最後,我們非常感謝國科會資助本計畫協同主持人李明、劉德海赴大陸進行調查、研究以及蒐集資料,使本計畫內容更為充實與確實。.|
A series of events happening in the late 1980s and the early 1990s brought about significant and fundamental changes in the international system. These were the Tienanman Incident and the pursuit of democratic politics and market economy in East Europe, the announcement of ending the Cold War by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1989 as well as the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Almost no single nation can escape from the impact of these events. Among them, the Communist countries suffered most, Mainland China in particular. For the first time since the 1970s Beijing felt isolated and threatened by the West in the international arena. In this research, we intend to explore Mainland Chinese international relations scholars' perceptions of the international system in the post cold war, their views about Mainland China's relations with Middle East, Northeast Asia, and Southeast Asia and whether their views were influenced by the above-mentioned events. This research project comprises three sub-projects. Professors Lee Deng-ker, To-hai Liou, and Lee Ming analyze Mainland China's Middle East, Northeast Asia, and Southeast Asia studies respectively. Contents include Mainland China's past and current studies regarding the respective areas, major concerns of the Chinese international relations intellect in the respective areas, Chinese scholars' research methods, achievements, merits and weakness. We come to a conclusion as follows: First, Mainland China's Asian international relations studies almost came to a halt during the Cultural Revolution. And the studies did not resume until 1978 when the Beijing authorities decided to engage economic reform. In the post cold war eraera, Mainland China's Middle East, Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia studies have become thrived due to the mentioned significant changes in the international environment. Related publications and papers have increased on a large scale and the hottest topic of the three area studies is economics and trade. Second, though Mainland China's studies in Asian international relations are thriving, they still favor traditionalist approaches, more description than analysis. Few scholars employ empirical analytical approaches endorsed by behavioralists. In addition, their failure to pay attention to footnotes undermines their papers' credibility. Other disadvantages affecting their papers' quality are underpaid researchers, poor research facilities, and late-coming research materials. Nevertheless, there are not short of remarkable masterpieces which cannot be ignored. Third, despite of the loosening of ideological bondage since economic reforms, we find there is much in correspondence between the area studies and the related foreign policy. Also, scholars tend to analyze international relations through Marxist-Leninist perspective. These seem to show that the Chinese authorities still play an important role in directing the studies. The salient example is Korea studies. Fourth, through this project, we are convinced that the scope that the Chinese intellect involve is broader than that of our researchers and their related research fellows also outnumber ours. This deserves our governmental agencies concerned to take it seriously. We then hope they will sponsor more researches in Asia studies in order to promote the South-bound policy and to help developing Taiwan into an Asia-Pacific regional operations hub. Finally, we greatly appreciate the National Science Council's financial support to Professors Lee Ming and To-hai Liou's field trips to Mainland China.